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Fred West

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For other people with the same name, see Frederick West.
Fred West
Fred and Rosemary in the mid-1980s
Born Frederick Walter Stephen West
(1941-09-29)29 September 1941
Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England
Died 1 January 1995(1995-01-01) (aged 53)
Winson Green Prison, Birmingham, England
Cause of death Suicide by hanging
Criminal penalty (Committed suicide
10 months before murder trial)
Spouse(s) Catherine "Rena" Costello (1962–1971, her death)
Rosemary Letts
(1972-1995, his death)
Conviction(s) Earlier convictions for:
Child molestation
Sexual assault
Victims 12-13+
Span of killings
July 1967–June 1987
Country United Kingdom
Date apprehended
24 February 1994

Frederick Walter Stephen "Fred" West (29 September 1941[1] – 1 January 1995) was an English serial killer known to have committed a minimum of 12 murders between 1967 and 1987 in Gloucestershire, England, the majority of which were committed with his second wife, Rosemary West.

All the murders committed by Fred and Rose West were of young females; the majority of which were committed for sexual gratification and which included the rape, bondage, torture and mutilation of their victims before their dismembered bodies were typically buried in the cellar or garden of their Cromwell Street home (some of this mutilation may have been committed while their victims were alive).[2] In addition, Fred is known to have committed at least two murders before collaborating with Rose, while Rose murdered Fred's stepdaughter, Charmaine, when he was in prison for theft in 1971. The pair were apprehended and charged in 1994.

Fred West committed suicide by hanging himself while on remand at HM Prison Birmingham on 1 January 1995. At the time of his death, he and his wife had been jointly charged with nine murders, with Fred also facing three additional murder charges.[3] Rosemary West was imprisoned for life with a recommendation that she never be released, in November 1995, after having been found guilty on 10 counts of murder. Their Cromwell Street residence was demolished in 1996 and the space later converted into a landscaped footpath.

Owing to the fact the majority of the Wests' victims' bodies were buried at 25 Cromwell Street, this address has become known as the House of Horrors.


Early life[edit]

Fred West was born into a poor family of farm workers in Bickerton Cottage, Much Marcle, Herefordshire. His parents were Walter Stephen West (5 July 1914 – 28 March 1992) and Daisy Hannah Hill (20 May 1922[citation needed] – 6 February 1968). He was the second of their six children.[4] West would later claim that his father had incestuous relationships with his daughters.[5] It has been suggested that incest was an accepted part of the household, and that his father taught him bestiality from an early age. In police interviews, West recalled that his father had said on many occasions: "Do what you want, just don’t get caught doing it".[6] It has also been alleged that his mother Daisy began sexually abusing him from the age of 12, although this was never proven nor admitted by West.[7] In 2014 West's surviving brother Doug, in a Channel 5 documentary, said that his claims of incest and bestiality, as well as the slitting of a pig's throat, had all been pure fantasy.[8]

At school, West showed an aptitude for woodwork and artwork, but did not otherwise excel academically. Throughout his life, West would remain scarcely literate. He left school in December 1956 at age 15.[9]

At the age of 17, in November 1958, he was involved in a serious crash on his motorcycle, suffering a fractured skull, a broken arm and leg, and did not regain consciousness for a whole week. His family reported that, after the accident, West both developed an extreme phobia of hospitals, and became prone to sudden fits of rage. Two years later, he hit his head in a fall from a fire escape and was unconscious for 24 hours.[10]

During 1960, at the age of 19, West was arrested for molesting his 13-year-old sister. He was convicted, but escaped a sentence of imprisonment.[11] His mother sent him to live with her sister Violet in Much Marcle, while the rest of the family effectively disowned him.[12]

Marriage to Catherine Costello[edit]

In September 1962, the 21-year-old West became re-acquainted with a former girlfriend, Catherine Costello, who was better known as Rena from her time working as a prostitute. Costello was already pregnant by a Pakistani bus driver, and she and West married in the market town of Ledbury on 17 November. The sole guest at this ceremony was West's younger brother, John.[13] The couple initially moved into Moorcourt Cottage, before announcing their intentions to relocate to Coatbridge, Lanarkshire, where West found employment as an ice cream van driver. Her daughter, Charmaine Carol Mary, was born on 22 March 1963.[14][15] To hide the baby's mixed ancestry (then a social stigma in the United Kingdom), Costello and West concocted a story that she had suffered a miscarriage, and that they had adopted Charmaine. In July 1964, Costello bore West a daughter named Anna Marie.

On 4 November 1965, he accidentally ran over and killed a four-year-old boy named Michael O'Keefe with his van.[16] Although cleared of any wrongdoing by police,[17] West feared the hostile reaction and potential reprisal attacks from the locals whom he relied upon to make his living over this accident. As a result, the family, along with Isa McNeill, who looked after the couple's children, and Costello's friend Anne McFall, moved into the Lakeside Caravan Park at Bishop's Cleeve, Gloucestershire. (McNeill and McFall both hailed from impoverished backgrounds; both hoped to find work in England.[18])

In 1966, to escape from West's increasingly sadistic sexual demands and domestic violence, Costello and McNeill moved back to Scotland, although Costello would regularly return to Bishop's Cleeve to visit her daughters; McFall, however, had by this stage become infatuated with Fred, who had promised to marry her. As such, she chose to remain with Fred to help him care for the girls. Letters she posted to her family and Isa McNeill in Glasgow indicate she likely believed a relationship with Fred would offer her a better life than that she had experienced in Glasgow.[19]

In July 1967, McFall, aged 18 and eight months pregnant with West's child, vanished. She was never reported missing, and her dismembered remains were found buried at the edge of a cornfield between Much Marcle and Kempley in June 1994. The following month, Costello returned to live with West, and although their relationship initially improved, Costello would again leave Fred the following year, again leaving the children in West's care.

Relationship with Rosemary Letts[edit]

While still married to Costello, 27-year-old West met his next wife, Rosemary Letts, on 29 November 1968 (her 15th birthday). On her 16th birthday, she moved in with him; a few months later, they moved from the caravan to a two-storey house in Midland Road, Gloucester. On 17 October 1970, Rosemary gave birth to their first child: a daughter they named Heather Ann. Fred West was imprisoned for theft from 4 December 1970 until 24 June 1971.

According to Anna Marie West, both she and Charmaine were frequently subjected to criticism, beatings, and other forms of punishment throughout the time they lived under Rose's care at Midland Road, but although she (Anna Marie) was generally submissive and prone to display emotion in relation to the physical and mental hardships she and her sister endured, Charmaine repeatedly infuriated Rosemary by her stoic refusal to either cry or display any sign of grief or servitude no matter how severely she was beaten, or to what punishment she was subjected. Anna Marie would later recollect her sister would repeatedly antagonise Rose by making statements such as: "My real mummy wouldn't swear or shout at us" in response to the scathing profanities Rose would hurl at she and her sister.[20]

Murder of Charmaine West[edit]

Rosemary West is believed to have killed Charmaine shortly before Fred West's prison release date of 24 June 1971. She is known to have taken Charmaine, Anna Marie and Heather to visit Fred on 15 June. It is believed to be on or very shortly after this date that Charmaine West was murdered. In addition to forensic odontology confirmation Charmaine had died while Fred was still incarcerated, further testimony from a neighbour named Shirley Giles would corroborate the fact Charmaine had been murdered before Fred had been released on 24 June. In her later testimony at Rose's trial, Mrs. Giles would state she and her family had lived in the upper flat of 25 Midland Road in 1971, and that her two daughters had been playmates of Charmaine and Anna Marie. Mrs. Giles would state that after her family had vacated the upper flat of Midland Road in April 1971, that on one day in June, she had brought her elder daughter, Tracey, to visit her close friend Charmaine, only for Tracey to be told by Rose: "She's gone to live with her mother, and bloody good riddance!"[21] before Tracey began to weep.

The body of Charmaine West was initially stowed in the coal cellar of Midland Road until Fred was released from prison. He would later bury Charmaine's body in the yard close to the back door of the flat, and although he remained adamant he had not dismembered this particular victim, a subsequent autopsy suggested Charmaine's body had been severed at the hip. In addition, several bones—particularly patellae, finger, wrist, toe and ankle bones—were missing from her skeleton, leading to the speculation the missing appendages had been retained as keepsakes (this would prove to be a distinctive discovery in all the autopsies of the victims exhumed in 1994).[22]

As with the Giles family, Rosemary explained Charmaine's disappearance to others who inquired as to her whereabouts by claiming that Rena Costello had called and taken her eldest daughter to live with her in Bristol. (Rena Costello later arrived to collect Charmaine and Anna Marie on or about August 1971; she too would be murdered.)


On 29 January 1972, Fred and Rosemary wed. The ceremony took place at Gloucester Register Office, with Fred incorrectly describing himself as a bachelor upon the marriage certificate.[23] Several months later, with Rose pregnant with her second child, the couple moved from Midland Road to an address nearby: 25 Cromwell Street. Initially, the home was rented from the council, although Fred would later purchase the property from the council,[24] and many of the upper floor rooms would be converted into bedsits, to supplement the household income as he did so. On 1 June, Rosemary gave birth to a second daughter. Due to the actual date of her birth, Fred and Rose named this child Mae June.[25]

Shortly after giving birth to her second child, and with her husband's encouragement, Rose began to work as a prostitute, operating from an upstairs room at their residence. By 1983, she would give birth to seven children, at least three of whom were conceived by clients to whom she prostituted herself.[26]


"Rose's Room", the room Rosemary used for prostitution, had peepholes so he could watch and a red light outside the door to warn the children not to enter when she was entertaining her clients. Like West was alleged to be, Rosemary came from a family where incest was common; Rosemary's father, Bill Letts, with Fred's approval, would often visit their home to engage in sex with his daughter.[27]

Initial sexual assaults[edit]

In September 1972, the Wests led eight-year-old Anna Marie to the cellar at 25 Cromwell Street, where the child was ordered to undress, with Rose tearing her dress from her body upon noting the child's hesitation.[28] She was then stripped naked, bound to a mattress and gagged her before Fred raped her[29] as Rose actively encouraged him to do so. After the rape, Rose explained to the child: "Everybody does it to every girl. It's a father's job. Don't worry, and don't say anything to anybody."[30]

Rose would occasionally sexually abuse the girl herself, and would later take extreme gratification in degrading the child with acts such as binding Anna-Marie to various items of furniture before encouraging Fred to rape her,[31] and forcing her to perform household chores while wearing sexual devices. From the age of 13, both Fred and Rose forced Anna-Marie to prostitute herself within the household, with her clients being informed Anna-Marie was 16. Nonetheless, Rose was always present in the room when these acts occurred,[32] to ensure the girl did not reveal her true age.[33]

In October 1972, the Wests hired 17-year-old Caroline Roberts as the children's nanny. They had picked up the girl one night on a secluded country road and she told them she wished to escape her cruel step-father; a week later she moved into 25 Cromwell Street to look after their three children at the time. Rosemary, who had begun prostitution in her bedroom by this time, explained to Roberts that she was a "masseuse" when the younger woman inquired about the men frequently visiting her.[34] According to Caroline, while she worked there Fred had informed her that if ever she needed an abortion he was well equipped to provide one. She became suspicious when Fred boasted that many of the women he had treated with an abortion were so overjoyed that they would offer him sexual services as a reward.[34] She rejected Fred's and Rosemary's advances into their "sex-circle" and left a few weeks later.[35]

On 6 December 1972, the Wests picked Roberts up again along the same secluded road as before and apologised profusely for what had happened. They invited her to their home to make amends with a "cup of tea".[34] Roberts had believed they had been genuinely courteous in what they said in their apology to her and obliged, believing that they had simply mistaken what the job had entailed. Back at 25 Cromwell Street, soon after they made her welcome with the promised cup of tea, Rose started kissing her, bound her heavily with bondage tape, and both Fred and Rose raped her. According to Roberts, Fred had remarked that "her vagina was unusual" and that he "would have to change that".[34] When she screamed, Rosemary smothered her with a pillow and she was bound further around the neck. Fred threatened her that they would keep her locked up in the cellar and let some of the black men who "visited" Rosemary "use" her and that when they had finished, they would bury her under the paving stones of Gloucester.[34] Fred boasted that they had killed hundreds of young girls and the police would never find them.[34] Quickly realising that they would kill her, Caroline gave in to them and let them do whatever they wanted without a fight.[34] Fred allowed Roberts to leave the next day only after she promised she would return as their nanny. Roberts reported the rape to police but withdrew the accusation when the case came to court. The Wests pleaded guilty to a reduced charge of indecent assault and were fined £50.[36]


Both Heather and Mae West became the focus of Fred's incestuous[37] sexual attentions after Anna Marie ran away from home in 1979 at age 15.[38] Although both girls were repulsed by their father's antics, Mae—having once endured Fred's throwing a vacuum cleaner at her when she vocally remonstrated against his fondling her—would develop a mechanism whereby she would succinctly tolerate Fred's sexually fondling her before jokingly brushing aside any efforts he made to take the molestation further,[39] whereas Heather, Mae recollected, "was effected quite badly by all of this. [Even] more than me."[40] By the mid-1980s, Heather is known to have developed classic symptoms of the distress felt by victims of child abuse: these included habits of her biting her nails; drinking alcohol; of warily watching her father through the corner of her eye wherever she was sat or standing; expressing nervous fragility whenever in the presence of males; and her repeatedly bouncing back and forth as she sat on any chair.[41] She is also known to have expressed her desires to run away from home and live a nomadic lifestyle in the Forest of Dean.

Heather did complain to friends about the abuse she and her siblings endured, and her external signs of psychological distress were noted by several of these individuals. She had pinned her hopes on escaping the household via obtaining a job as a chalet cleaner at a holiday camp in the seaside town of Torquay, although she would receive notification in June this application had been unsuccessful. In response, she crumpled into tears before her siblings Mae and Stephen. That same evening, her whole family heard Heather sobbing aloud as she attempted to sleep,[42] and according to Mae, she "cried all the way through the night."[43] The following morning (on or shortly after 17 June 1987), Heather was "back to her usual self, looking miserable, biting her nails and sitting on the couch bouncing back and forth as she sat"[37] as her siblings left the house to go to school. When Heather's siblings returned home, they were informed Heather had left home to accept the job she had previously been refused in Torquay. Her disappearance, Fred and Rosemary's changing stories about Heather's whereabouts, and the threats to their other children that they would "end up under the patio like Heather" if they misbehaved would ultimately lead to inquiries as to Heather's whereabouts, culminating in a search warrant being issued to excavate the Wests' garden in February 1994.[44]

Investigation, arrest and charges[edit]

In May 1992, West filmed himself raping one of his seven daughters, and four times again afterwards. She told friends at school what had happened. On 4 August, one of the friends told her mother, who went to the police. On 6 August 1992, the police began an investigation, eventually leading to West being charged with rape, with Rosemary as an accomplice. She was also charged with child cruelty, and the remaining children were placed in foster care. The rape case against the Wests collapsed when the two main witnesses declined to testify at the court case on 7 June 1993.

The police continued investigating the disappearance of their daughter Heather. After taking statements from social workers, and the children, about a joke about "Heather being buried under the patio", they obtained a search warrant in February 1994, which allowed them to excavate the garden in search of Heather. They started searching the house and excavating the garden on 24 February 1994.

After West's arrest the following day, the police uncovered human bones.[45] He confessed, retracted and then re-confessed to the murder of his daughter, denying that Rosemary was involved. Rosemary was not arrested until April 1994, initially on sex offences but later charged with murder. Additional bodies were found and, on 4 March 1994, West admitted that he had carried out nine more murders, including that of his first wife, whose body was found on 10 April 1994.

Fred and Rosemary West were brought before a magistrates' court in Gloucester on 30 June 1994; he was charged with 11 murders and she with 10. Immediately afterwards, Fred West was re-arrested on suspicion of murdering Anne McFall, whose body had been found on 7 June 1994. On the evening of 3 July 1994, he was charged with her murder, appearing in court the following morning.


On 1 January 1995, Fred West committed suicide by asphyxiation while on remand in his cell at Winson Green Prison, Birmingham.[46] His funeral was held in Coventry on 29 March 1995. Contrary to many reports at the time, West did not hang himself.

Often I read or it's been said that he hanged himself. He didn't hang himself at all. He asphyxiated himself, having over a period of time made a rope out of a blanket. He couldn't really use anything other than the handles on the door and a catchment on the window to bind this piece of rope round. But what he successfully did was bound it round his neck and sank to his knees.

— Detective Superintendent John Bennet of Gloucestershire Police (leader of the murder investigation), Television interview, Crimes That Shook Britain, Season 5 (broadcast 7 September 2014)

West was cremated with only four mourners present, after a five-minute service.[47] His ashes were later scattered on the beach at Barry Island near Cardiff.[48]


The evidence against Rosemary was circumstantial; unlike her husband, she did not confess. She was tried in October 1995 at Winchester Crown Court, found guilty of all 10 murders on 22 November and sentenced to life imprisonment.[49] The trial judge recommended that she never be released and nearly two years later the Home Secretary Jack Straw agreed with this recommendation.

On 27 January 1996, the body of the Wests' former friend and housemate, Terrence Crick, was found in his car in Hackness, near Scarborough. Crick had been called as a defence witness for Rosemary during the trial, in an attempt to prove her husband had been working alone. He had reported Fred to the authorities on several occasions after being shown "gruesome images of body parts and surgical instruments" allegedly used during illegal abortions, but believed that this information was not acted on as Fred was a police informant. The stress and guilt led Crick to take his own life; an inquest later recorded a verdict of suicide. In May 2014, his widow put a complaint forward to the Independent Police Complaints Commission.[50][51]

In October 1996, the Wests' house in Cromwell Street, which was next to the Seventh-day Adventist Church, along with the adjoining property, was demolished. The site was redeveloped as a landscaped pathway. Every brick was crushed and every timber was burned to discourage souvenir hunters.[52]

Novelist Martin Amis was a cousin of the Wests' victim Lucy Partington, who disappeared in 1973. He dedicated his novel The Information (published in 1995) to her; the book was published after her body was found but before Rosemary West went on trial.[53]

The victims[edit]

  • Charmaine West (born 22 March 1963), is believed to have been killed sometime on or very shortly after 15 June 1971 (aged 8) by Rose West while Fred was in prison. The motive may have been Rose's wish to break links with Charmaine's mother, "Rena", or simple domestic violence.[37]
  • Catherine Bernadette Costello (born 14 April 1944), was killed in August 1971 (aged 27). Costello is believed to have called on the Wests at 25 Midland Road to either inquire about or take custody of her two daughters' It is believed Fred West killed her to avoid any investigation into Charmaine's whereabouts. She was last seen inquiring as to her daughters' whereabouts in August 1971, and is believed to have been strangled to death by Fred before being buried in Letterbox Field.[54]
  • Lynda Gough (born 1 May 1953), was killed in April 1973 (aged 19). A lodger at 25 Cromwell St. Gough and Rosemary are known to have shared lovers. Following her disappearance, Gough's mother called at Cromwell Street to enquire as to her daughter's whereabouts, only to note Rosemary had been wearing her daughter's clothes and slippers. She was informed Lynda had moved to find work in Weston-super-Mare. Despite this, no police investigation into Lynda Gough's disappearance was launched at the time.
  • Carol Ann Cooper (born 10 April 1958), was killed on 10 November 1973. Aged 15 when murdered, Cooper had been placed into care following her mother's death in 1966. She was last seen alive by her boyfriend in the suburb of Warndon boarding a bus to her grandmother's home.[55]
  • Lucy Katherine Partington (born 4 March 1952), was killed in late December 1973 or early January 1974 (aged 21). She spent Christmas with her family in Cheltenham and visited a friend. She disappeared after leaving to catch a bus home. Her precise date of death can never be known. However, at twenty-five past midnight on 3 January 1974 Fred West admitted himself into the casualty unit at Gloucester Royal hospital with a serious laceration of his right-hand that required several stitches, leading to speculation that she could have been kept alive and tortured for several days in the cellar of the Wests' home in Cromwell Street before finally being murdered.[56] Whatever the truth, her remains were discovered there on 6 March 1994 alongside the knife Fred West used to dismember them. Partington, a university student, was the cousin of novelist Martin Amis and the sister of author Marian Partington. The latter wrote about her sister's disappearance and the discovery of her remains in her memoir If You Sit Very Still (2012).[57]
  • Therese Siegenthaler (born 27 November 1952), was a Swiss student, and is believed to have died in April 1974 (aged 21). She had been living in South London but left to hitch-hike to Ireland and was then reported missing.
  • Shirley Hubbard (born 26 June 1959). Abducted from a Droitwich bus stop on 14 November 1974.[58] Aged 15, she left a work experience course in Droitwich to return home, but did not arrive. When her remains were found, her head was completely covered in tape with only a three-inch rubber tube inserted into her nasal cavity to enable her to breathe.
  • Juanita Marion Mott (born 1 March 1957). Murdered 12 April 1975 (aged 18). Mott had been a former lodger at 25 Cromwell St., but was living with a family friend in Newent when she disappeared. Mott is believed to have been abducted as she hitch-hiked along the B4215. In his subsequent confessions to police, West would refer to Mott as "the girl from Newent".[59]
  • Shirley Anne Robinson (born 8 October 1959). Robinson was murdered on 9 May 1978 (aged 18). She had been a lodger at 25 Cromwell St., and a willing prostitute for the Wests. She disappeared after becoming pregnant with Fred's child at the age of 18.
  • Alison Chambers (born 8 September 1962), was killed in August 1979 just before her 17th birthday. This was the last of the killings where a sexual motive was established.
  • Heather Ann West (born 17 October 1970), was killed in June 1987 at the age of 16, and was the last of the 12 victims. Heather became the focus of Fred's attentions after her sister Anna Marie left home. She complained to friends about the abuse, and when this got back to Fred and Rose, they decided to eliminate her as she risked exposing their abuse and potentially their murders.[37] Heather was probably sired by Rose's abusive father, Bill Letts.[37] Fred West claimed he had not meant to kill her, but she had been sneering at him and he "had to take the smirk off her face". Rosemary told an enquiring neighbour the following day that she and Heather had a "hell of a row", so it is believed that Rosemary may have initiated her death. Barry West gave a different account on what happened to Heather. Barry, who was just seven at the time, described both parents sexually and physically abusing her, followed by Rosemary West kicking her in the head multiple times until she stopped moving.[60] The Wests told their children that Heather had left for a job in Devon; later, when she failed to contact or visit her siblings, the parents claimed that Heather had run off with a lesbian lover. Later still, Fred would threaten the children that they would "end up under the patio like Heather" if they misbehaved. Heather's body was found under the patio that Fred had built over the pond dug by his son Stephen. The police investigation into the disappearance of Heather West in 1994 led to the arrest of both Fred and Rose West, and the eventual discovery of the bodies of their earlier victims.


  • Heather West's murder in June 1987 was the only known murder committed after the murder of Alison Chambers, which was itself committed almost 15 years prior to their arrest. Nine murders had been committed in the eight years prior to Chambers' murder. Police believe that the couple were responsible for further murders. There were no known murders in 1976 or 1977, or from 1980 to 1986 or from 1988 until their arrest. During questioning after being arrested, Fred West confessed to murdering up to 30 people (which amounted to around 18 unsolved disappearances or murders), but the police believed there may only have been one other victim whose body was never found.
  • In addition to the 12 confirmed, they believe that West also killed 15-year-old Mary Bastholm in January 1968, but to date no body has been found.[7] West's son, Stephen, has said he firmly believed the missing Gloucester teenager was an early victim of his father, as Fred West had reportedly boasted, while on remand in prison during 1994, of committing Bastholm's murder. Police were unable to charge West with this crime as they had no evidence.[61]
  • No forensic evidence linked Fred West to the murder of Anne McFall, and he always denied killing her. The state of the body (missing finger and toe bones) and the dimensions of the grave site match aspects of West's modus operandi.[62]
  • Janet Leach, West's appropriate adult, who also visited him in prison, later wrote in her book that West told her that he and Rose West had been involved in at least 20 murders. Possible other victims (all missing or murdered women or girls) were frequently mentioned in the local and national media, but 20 years on, no further bodies have been found.[63]

Adaptations and dramatisations[edit]

  • Harold and Fred (They Make Ladies Dead) was a 2001 comic strip in Viz, also featuring serial killer Harold Shipman, which was criticised by the victims' families. The editor of Viz commented: "Yes, it is going a bit far and I don't need to defend it, but I'll make a half-hearted attempt. I'm sure Mel Brooks didn't think the Nazis were funny, but a lot of his comedy was based around them. The cover of Viz gives you a pretty good idea of what the content is going to be like and people that are offended by it, don't buy it."[64][65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Births deaths and marriages for England and Wales - July 1996
  2. ^ Fred & Rose p. 151
  3. ^ Fred & Rose p. 276
  4. ^ Fred West: Born to Kill, Channel 5, 26 July 2012
  5. ^ "Fred and Rose West – Fred" Retrieved 3 July 2009
  6. ^ Steven Morris (20 September 2007). "Serial Murder and the Psychology of a Sexual Sadist: Frederick West". New Criminologist. Retrieved 18 January 2009. 
  7. ^ a b Real Life Crimes and How They Were Solved. Eaglemoss Publications. 2002. 
  8. ^ Knight, Adam. "Fred West's brother denies incest claims (From Hereford Times)". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "The Real Story of Fred West's 'Only Friend'". 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 
  10. ^ "The Biography Channel" The Biography Retrieved 18 July 2007
  11. ^ "Fred and Rose West – Fred", TruTV, Retrieved 13 July 2007
  12. ^ Sounes, Howard (1995), Fred and Rose: The Full Story of Fred and Rose West and the Gloucester House of Horrors, London: Warner Books. ISBN 0-7515-1322-9.
  13. ^ Fred & Rose p. 59
  14. ^ Fred & Rose p. 61
  15. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 29
  16. ^ "Fred and Rose West – First blood",, Retrieved 13 July 2007
  17. ^ Fred & Rose p. 68
  18. ^ Fred & Rose p. 69
  19. ^ Fred & Rose p. 72
  20. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 50
  21. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 58
  22. ^ Fred & Rose p. 114
  23. ^ Fred & Rose p. 124
  24. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 60
  25. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 60
  26. ^ Fred & Rose p. 174
  27. ^ "Euan Ferguson on the Legacy of Fred West", The Guardian, 15 February 2004
  28. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 68
  29. ^ An Evil Love – Geoffrey Wansell
  30. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 70
  31. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 95
  32. ^ Fred & Rose p. 170
  33. ^ Out of the Shadows p. 79
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Fred and Rose West- The House Of Horrors 3/4 on YouTube
  35. ^ The Lost Girl by Caroline Roberts
  36. ^ "Surviving Fred and Rose". BBC News. 24 February 2004. Retrieved 1 June 2008. 
  37. ^ a b c d e "Rose West: The making of a Monster" by Jane Carter Woodrow
  38. ^ Sounes, Howard (1995), Fred and Rose: The Full Story of Fred and Rose West and the Gloucester House of Horrors, London: Warner Books. ISBN 0-7515-1322-9, p.187.
  39. ^ Inside 25 Cromwell Street pp. 75-76
  40. ^ Inside 25 Cromwell Street p. 79
  41. ^ Fred & Rose p. 192
  42. ^ Fred & Rose p. 197
  43. ^ Inside 25 Cromwell Street p. 86
  44. ^ Fred & Rose p. 227
  45. ^ "Fred and Rose West – House of Horrors" Retrieved 13 July 2007
  46. ^ "1995: Serial killer West found hanged". British Broadcasting Corporation. 1 January 1995. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  47. ^ "Suicide in Birmingham saw Fred West cheat justice". Birmingham Mail. 16 Feb 2011. Retrieved 14 Oct 2014. 
  48. ^ "There's more to our Barry Island than a TV comedy". Wales Online. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  49. ^ "Fred and Rose West – Endgame" Retrieved 13 July 2007
  50. ^ "Witness in West trial 'killed himself'". The Independent. 23 January 1996. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  51. ^ McCann, Jaymi (7 September 2014). "Fred West police ignored warning from my husband". Terry Crick suicide after Fred West Warning not acted upon by police. The Sunday Express. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  52. ^ "Fred West House to be Demolished". The Independent. 4 October 1996. Retrieved 1 June 2008. 
  53. ^ "Amis pays tribute to victim", The Times, 17 April 1995.
  54. ^ Fred & Rose p. 119
  55. ^ Fred & Rose pp. 145-146
  56. ^
  57. ^ Marian Partington, If You Sit Very Still, Vala Publishing Co-operative (2012)
  58. ^ Fred & Rose p. 156
  59. ^ Fred & Rose p. 160
  60. ^ Ferguson, Ian (15 February 2004). "There's nobody home...". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  61. ^ "Fred West 'admitted killing waitress', BBC News 25 March 1998". BBC News. 25 March 1998. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  62. ^ Happy Like Murderers, Gordon Burn, pp146-147
  63. ^ Scary Bitches: 15 of the Scariest Women You'll Ever Meet! - William Webb - Google Books. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  64. ^ Garrett, Jade (1 February 2001). "'Viz' pushes taste to its limits with Shipman cartoon – Media, News – The Independent". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 
  65. ^ "BBC News – Anger at Shipman Cartoon". 1 February 2001. Retrieved 6 March 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

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