Frederick IX of Denmark
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Birth and family
Prince Frederick was born on 11 March 1899 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby on Zealand during the reign of his great-grandfather King Christian IX. His father was Prince Christian of Denmark (later King Christian X), the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick and Princess Louise of Sweden (later King Frederick VIII and Queen Louise). His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.
He was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899. The young prince had 21 godparents, among them his great-grandfather Christian IX of Denmark, Nicholas II of Russia, George I of Greece, Oscar II of Sweden and Norway, his grandfather Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom) and his uncle Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Frederick's only sibling, Knud, was born one year after Frederick.
Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederick's grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Frederick's father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne.
Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Frederick's father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederick himself now became crown prince.
Frederick was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy (breaking with Danish royal tradition by choosing a naval instead of an army career) and the University of Copenhagen. Before he became king, he had acquired the rank of Rear Admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He acquired several tattoos during his naval service.
Marriage and issue
In 1922, Frederick was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his second cousin. They never wed.
Instead, he married Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1910–2000) at Storkyrkan in Stockholm on 24 May 1935. She was a daughter of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (later King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden) and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. They were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were double third cousins. In descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother.
Their daughters are:
- Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, born 16 April 1940, married to Henri de Laborde de Monpezat and has two sons
- Princess Benedikte of Denmark, born 29 April 1944, married to Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and has three children
- Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, born 30 August 1946, married to King Constantine II of Greece and has five children
From 1942 until 1943, Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his father who was temporarily incapacitated after a fall from his horse in October 1942.
Frederick IX's reign saw great change. During these years, Danish society shook off the restrictions of an agricultural society and developed a welfare state. And, as a consequence of the booming economy of the 1960s, women entered the labour market. In other words, Denmark became a modern country, which meant new demands on the monarchy.
As he had no sons, it was expected that his younger brother Knud would inherit the throne, in accordance with Denmark's succession law (Royal Ordinance of 1853).
However, in 1953, an Act of Succession was passed, changing the method of succession to cognatic primogeniture. This meant that his daughters could succeed if he had no sons. His eldest daughter, Margrethe, did so, as Queen Margrethe II. By order of 27 March 1953 the succession to the throne was limited to the issue of King Christian X.
Shortly after the King had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he became ill with flu-like symptoms. After a few days rest, he suffered cardiac arrest and was rushed to the municipal hospital on 3 January. After a brief period of apparent improvement, the King's condition took a negative turn on 11 January, and he died 3 days later, on 14 January, at 7:50 pm surrounded by his immediate family and closest friends, having been unconscious since the previous day.
Following his death, the King's coffin was transported to his home at Amalienborg Palace, where it stood until 18 January, when it was moved to the chapel at Christiansborg Palace. There the King was placed on castrum doloris, a ceremony largely unchanged since introduced at the burial of Frederick III in 1670, and the last remaining Royal ceremony where the Danish Crown Regalia is used. The King then lay in state for six days until his funeral, during which period the public could pay their last respects.
The funeral took place on 24 January 1972, and was split in two parts. First a brief ceremony was held in the chapel where the king had lain in state, where the Bishop of Copenhagen, Willy Westergaard Madsen said a brief prayer, followed by a hymn, before the coffin was carried out of the chapel by members of the Royal Life Guards and placed on a gun carriage for the journey through Copenhagen to Copenhagen Central Station. The gun carriage was pulled by 48 seamen and was escorted by honor guards from the Danish Army, Air Force, and Navy, as well as honor guards from France, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States.
At the Copenhagen Central Station, the coffin was placed in a special railway carriage for the rail journey to Roskilde. The funeral train was pulled by two DSB class E) steam engines. Once in Roskilde, the coffin was pulled through the city by a group of seamen to Roskilde Cathedral where the final ceremony took place.
Previous rulers had been interred in the cathedral, but it was the King's wish to be buried outside.
He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Queen Margrethe II. Queen Ingrid survived her husband by 28 years. She died on 7 November 2000. Her remains were interred alongside him at the burial site outside Roskilde Cathedral.
On 20 April 1982, a statue of King Frederick IX dressed in the uniform of an admiral was unveiled by the Copenhagen harbour on the 35th anniversary of his accession to the throne in 1947 and in the tenth year after his death.
The Crown Prince Frederick Bridge which spans the Roskilde Fjord between the town of Frederikssund and the peninsula of Hornsherred, as well as the Frederick IX Bridge which spans the Guldborgsund strait between the islands of Falster and Lolland, are both named after Frederick IX.
Titles, styles and honours
King Frederik IX of Denmark
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- 11 March 1899 – 14 May 1912: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 14 May 1912 – 1 December 1918: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 1 December 1918 – 17 June 1944: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark and Iceland
- 17 June 1944 – 20 April 1947: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972: His Majesty King Frederick IX of Denmark
- National Honours
- Denmark: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Elephant(R.E.)
- Denmark: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Dannebrog(S.K.)
- Greenland: Sovereign Knight of the Nersornaat Medal(Grøn.Hjst.M)
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Medal of Merit
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Navy Long Service Medal
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Army Long Service Medal
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Air Force Long Service Medal
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Armed Long Service Medal
- Denmark: Sovereign Recipient of the Medal of Honor of the League of Civil
- Foreign Honours
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
- Belgium: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
- Ethiopia: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Seal of Solomon
- France: Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
- Greek Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- Greek Royal Family: Knight Grand Officer with Collar of the Order of George I
- Iceland: Grand Cross of the Order of the Falcon
- Iran: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Pahlavi
- Iran: Medal of the 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire
- Italian Royal Family: Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
- Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Italian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
- Sweden: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Seraphim
- United Kingdom: 912th Extra Knight of the Order of the Garter(KG)
- United Kingdom: Knight of the Order of the Royal Victoria Chain(RVC)
- United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order(GCVO)
- United Kingdom: Bailiff Grand Cross of the Venerable Order of Saint John
- Thailand : Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Chula Chom Klao
- "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10126". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- "Prinser og Prinsesser kommer også i kirkebogen". The Danish State Archives. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 300—309. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
- Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 315. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
- Roger Lundgren. Ingrid. Pp 147. People'sPress (2010). ISBN 978-87-7055-826-6.
- "King Frederick IX (1899-1972)". The City of Copenhagen. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 134. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frederick IX of Denmark.|
- The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy
- Frederik IX at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace
Cadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 11 March 1899 Died: 14 January 1972
|King of Denmark