Frederick Lois Riefkohl
|Frederick Lois Riefkohl|
United States Naval Academy cadet Frederick Lois Riefkohl
Riefkohl was the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy
February 27, 1889|
Maunabo, Puerto Rico
|Died||September 1969 (aged 80)
Brevard County, Florida
|Place of burial||United States Naval Academy Cemetery in Annapolis, Maryland.|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1911-1947|
|Battles/wars||World War I
World War II
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl (February 27, 1889 – September 1969), a native of Maunabo, Puerto Rico, was an officer in the United States Navy and the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy and to be awarded the Navy Cross. The Navy Cross is the second highest medal, after the Medal of Honor, that can be awarded by the U.S. Navy for heroism or distinguished service. He was a World War I Navy Cross recipient who served as Captain of the USS Vincennes during World War II.
Born Luis Federico Riefkohl Jaimieson[note 1]), he was born and raised in Maunabo, Puerto Rico, a son of Luis Riefkohl y Sandoz[note 2] and Julia Jaimieson. His older brother was Rudolph W. Riefkohl, a Colonel in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, who played an instrumental role in helping the people of Poland overcome the 1919 typhus epidemic. His other siblings were his sisters, Helen, Emily and Louise Riefkohl.
Luis Federico Riefkohl received his primary and secondary education in the towns of Arroyo; Christainsted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands and spent three and a half years at Phillips Andover Academy in Boston, Massachusetts. Riefkohl received an appointment on July 5, 1907, from Beekman Winthrop, the U.S. appointed governor of Puerto Rico from 1904 to 1907, to attend the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. In 1911, he became the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the Academy.
During World War I, Lieutenant Riefkohl served as Commander of the Armed Guard of the USS Philadelphia and on August 2, 1917 he was awarded the Navy Cross for engaging an enemy submarine. The Navy Cross is the second highest medal that can be awarded by the U.S. Navy and is awarded to members of the U.S. Navy or U.S. Marine Corps for heroism or distinguished service.
Pre-World War II
Riefkohl was reassigned to the Fifteenth Naval District, Balboa, Canal Zone as District Communication Officer. From 1920 to 1923, he served in various ships and in different positions, among which were Squadron Radio Officer for Destroyer Squadron 3, Atlantic Fleet, Aide and Force Radio Officer on the Staff of Commander Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet and Executive Officer of the USS Preble en route to Asiatic Station. From August 1922 until October 1923, Riefkohl served as Aide and Flag Secretary and Fleet Radio and Communication Officer to Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet.
From July 1926 to August 1928, he assumed command of the destroyer "USS Corry". He returned to the Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, after a naval tour which included the ports of Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and St. Thomas, Virgin Islands and served as Executive Officer of the USS Kittery until June 1929. Riefkohl served as Chief of Staff to the governor of the Virgin Islands until April 30, 1931, when he became Commandant of the islands Naval Station. He continued to serve in various ships until he was placed in charge of the Navy Motion Picture Exchange, Navy Yard, New York, during his senior year at the Naval War College. From January 1935 to December 1936 he served as an advisor to the Argentine Navy Department at Buenos Aires, Argentina. From July 19, 1939 until April 4, 1941, Riefkohl served as War Plans Officer on the staff of the Commandant Fifteenth Naval District, Balboa, Canal Zone.
World War II
Riefkohl assumed command of the USS Vincennes on April 23, 1941. USS Vincennes was in the Atlantic when the U.S. entered World War II and escorted the aircraft carrier USS Hornet to the Pacific. Vincennes was part of the cruiser escort for Hornet and USS Enterprise for the Doolittle Raids on Tokyo and for the Battle of Midway.
For the Guadalcanal operation, Riefkohl's ship was assigned to the Fire Support Group, LOVE (with Transport Group XRAY) under the command of Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner's Task Force TARE (Amphibious Force) for the landing which began on August 7, 1942. The USS Vincennes belonged to Task Group 62.2, which screened the landings to the west of the assembled transports unloading on Guadalcanal and Tulagi. Rear Admiral Victor A. Crutchley commanded six allied cruisers, plus a small number of destroyers and minesweepers and split the force into a Northern Force (USS Vincennes, USS Quincy, and the USS Astoria) and a Southern Force (HMAS Australia, HMAS Canberra, and USS Chicago)
Japanese Admiral Gunichi Mikawa of the Japanese Navy decided to make a surprise attack on the American ships, leading to Battle of Savo Island. He first destroyed an Australian cruiser, then damaged the USS Chicago before going after the USS Vincennes. Riefkohl was summoned up to the bridge and believed that a minor skirmish was taking place with some ship. When the Japanese ships turned on their searchlights, Riefkohl mistook them for the American ships from the Southern Force and asked them over the radio to turn off their lights because enemy vessels might be near. The Japanese answered the message with a fusillade of shells and torpedoes.
Riefkohl ordered a starboard turn, but torpedoes hit and exploded, destroying both engine rooms. The USS Vincennes fired back and may have hit the Kinugasa, a Japanese cruiser. The Vincennes received 85 direct hits and Riefkohl ordered his men to abandon ship. The sailors manned the life rafts and the Vincennes rolled over and went down with 342 men still aboard. Riefkohl was presented a Purple Heart for the wounds which he received.
The HMAS Canberra, USS Vincennes, USS Quincy, and USS Astoria sank and the USS Chicago was badly damaged in the battle. But, they had successfully screened the amphibious ships that were still unloading to the east.
Riefkohl never commanded a United States Naval vessel again. In October 1942 he reported to the Office of the US Attache, American Embassy, Mexico City, Mexico, and joined the staff of the Commander, Mexican Forces, Region Gulf of Mexico, at Vera Cruz, as Liaison Officer for US Commander, Gulf Sea Frontier. Throughout the remaining war years, Riefkohl served in different positions, among them District Intelligence Officer, Eighth Naval District, with headquarters at New Orleans, Louisiana.
Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl retired from the Navy in 1947. He later served as the Chief of Staff to the governor the U.S. Virgin Islands, advisor to the Argentine Navy and as Inspector of the 10th Naval District in San Juan, Puerto Rico until his retirement from the Navy on January 1, 1947. Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl died in Brevard County, Florida in 1969 and was buried with full military honors in the United States Naval Academy Cemetery. He was married to Louisa Gibson Riefkohl (1902–1974) and did not have any offspring.
Awards and recognitions
Among Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl's decorations and medals were the following:
- Navy Cross
- Navy Distinguished Service Medal
- Purple Heart
- Mexican Campaign Medal
- World War I Victory Medal with Armed Guard Clasp
- American Defense Service Medal with bronze "A" device
- American Campaign Medal
- European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
- Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
- World War II Victory Medal
- Hispanic Admirals in the United States Navy
- List of Puerto Ricans
- Puerto Ricans in World War I
- Puerto Ricans in World War II
- List of Puerto Rican military personnel
- German immigration to Puerto Rico
- Puerto Rican recipients of the Navy Cross
- Hispanics in the United States Navy
- Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy
- This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Riefkohl and the second or maternal family name is Jaimieson.
- This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Riefkohl and the second or maternal family name is Sandoz.
- Descendants of Otto Julius Riefkohl
- Puerto Rican War Heroes
- "Puertorriquenos Who Served With Guts, Glory, and Honor-B/W Edition: Fighting to Defend a Nation Not Completely Their Own"; by Greg Boudonck; Page 21; Publisher: Create pace Independent Publishing Platform; ISBN 978-1497421837
- Naval History
- Riefkohl's Navy Cross citation Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "C2 Re-envisioned: The Future of the Enterprise"; by Marius S. Vassiliou and David S. Alberts; Page: 136; Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition; ISBN 978-1466595804
- "The Conquering Tide: War in the Pacific Islands, 1942-1944; By Ian W. Toll; Page 39; Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; First American edition (September 21, 2015); ISBN 978-0393080643
- "Puerto Rico L-Archives".
- "World War II Plus 55". Archived from the original on 2007-05-19.
- "Historia Militar de Puerto Rico"; by Héctor Andrés Negroni; pg. 486; ISBN 84-7888-138-7
- "United States Naval Academy Cemetery of Columbarium" (PDF).
- Puertorriquenos Who Served With Guts, Glory, and Honor. Fighting to Defend a Nation Not Completely Their Own; by : Greg Boudonck; ISBN 978-1497421837
- The Future of the Enterprise; by Marius S. Vassiliou and David S. Alberts; ISBN 978-1466595804
- The Conquering Tide: War in the Pacific Islands, 1942-1944; By Ian W. Toll; ISBN 978-0393080643