|Frederick Joseph Rutland|
21 October 1886|
|Died||28 January 1949(aged 62)|
||Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Air Force
|Years of service||1901–1923|
|Battles/wars||First World War|
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross & Bar
Frederick Joseph Rutland, DSC & Bar, AM (21 October 1886 – 28 January 1949) was a British pioneer of naval aviation. A decorated pilot in the First World War, he earned the nickname "Rutland of Jutland" for his exploits at the Battle of Jutland in 1916. He later worked for the Japanese and was interned by the British authorities during the Second World War.
"Rutland of Jutland"
He joined the Royal Navy as a boy seaman in 1901. He was graded as Flight Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) in December 1914, awarded his aviator's certificate by the Royal Aero Club on 26 January 1915 after training at Eastchurch and promoted to Lieutenant on 7 January 1916.
At Jutland he served as a pilot on the seaplane tender HMS Engadine. On 30 May 1916, Engadine carried two Short Type 184 and two Sopwith Baby floatplanes and was attached to the 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron. Engadine accompanied the cruisers when the Battlecruiser Fleet sortied from Rosyth that evening to intercept the German High Seas Fleet. Beatty ordered Engadine to make a search to the north-northeast. At 15:07 Lieutenant Rutland took off in his Type 184 and his observer, Assistant Paymaster George Stanley Trewin, signalled Engadine that they had spotted three German cruisers and five destroyers at 15:30. This was the first time that a heavier-than-air aircraft had carried out a reconnaissance of an enemy fleet in action. After a few other spot reports were transmitted, the aircraft's fuel line ruptured around 15:36 and Rutland was forced to put his aircraft down. He was able to repair it and signalled that he was ready to take off again, but he was ordered to taxi to the carrier on the surface. The aircraft reached the ship at 15:47 and it was hoisted aboard by 16:04. Engadine attempted to relay the spot reports to Beatty's flagship and the flagship of the 5th Battle Squadron, but was unsuccessful. Rutland was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) "for his gallantry and persistence in flying within close distance of the enemy light cruisers". He received a Bar to his DSC in 1917 for "services on patrol duties and submarine searching in home waters".
During the Battle of Jutland, the armoured cruiser HMS Warrior had been crippled by numerous hits by German battleships. At 19:45 Engadine attempted to take her in tow, but the jammed rudder prevented that until it was trained amidships. Early the following morning Warrior's progressive flooding had worsened and she was sinking. The captain ordered his ship abandoned after Engadine came alongside to take the crew off at 08:00. About 675 officers and men successfully made it to the much smaller Engadine. Among these were about 30 seriously wounded men who were transferred across in their stretchers; one man fell from his stretcher between the ships, but, against orders, Rutland dived overboard with a bowline to rescue him. For his bravery he was awarded the Albert Medal in Gold. Rutland's Short Type 184, aircraft number 8359, was presented to the Imperial War Museum in 1917, where it was damaged in a German air raid in 1940. The unrestored forward section of the fuselage is now an exhibit in the Fleet Air Arm Museum.
On 28 June 1917, Flight Commander Rutland took off in a Sopwith Pup from a flying-off platform mounted on the roof of one of the gun turrets of the light cruiser HMS Yarmouth, the first such successful launch of an aircraft in history. He transferred to the Royal Air Force when it was formed in April 1918. He was appointed to command the RAF unit in HMS Eagle in September 1921. He resigned his commission in 1923.
Rutland did more experiments on the battlecruiser HMS Repulse. It was the first capital ship fitted with a flying-off platform when an experimental one was fitted on 'B' turret in the autumn of 1917. Then Squadron Leader Frederick Rutland took off in a Sopwith Pup on 1 October 1917. Another platform was built on 'Y' turret and Rutland successfully took off from it on 8 October 1917.
Material released by The National Archives on 10 November 2000 revealed that Rutland had come to the notice of MI5 in 1922 when he decided to resign from the RAF. The agency received what it called "reliable information" from a "very delicate source" that the Japanese had secret talks with Rutland. MI5 noted that Rutland possessed "unique knowledge of aircraft carriers and deck landings".
After he left the RAF, Rutland started a business in Los Angeles and another in Honolulu. Later intercepts of Japanese communications showed that Tokyo had paid Rutland to set up a "small agency in Hawaii". He had subsequently provided technical details which helped the Japanese design aircraft carriers, in the years before the attack on Pearl Harbor. This was discovered when Japan's cyphers were broken.
MI6 discovered that Rutland had come to the attention of the US authorities. He returned to Britain on 5 October 1941 and on 16 December 1941 he was interned under Defence Regulation 18B "by reason of alleged hostile associations".
Rutland committed suicide in 1949.
- William Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill
- Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory
- Japanese spy in Hawaii, Takeo Yoshikawa
- German spy in Hawaii, Kuehn Family
- Bradbeer 2016
- Young 1963
- Imperial War Museum 2017
- The London Gazette 1915, p. 10
- Flight International 1915, p. 93
- The London Gazette 29434 1916, p. 5
- Flight International 1916, p. 595
- Layman 1989, pp. 96–98
- The London Gazette 29751 1916, p. 4
- The London Gazette 1917, p. 3
- The London Gazette 29703 1916, p. 10
- Fleet Air Arm Museum 2017
- Sturtivant 1990, p. 215
- The London Gazette 1923, p. 7
- Raven & Roberts 1976, p. 51
- The Daily Telegraph 2000
- Everest-Phillips 2006, pp. 258–285
- Norton-Taylor 2000
- Smith 2001, pp. 32–33
- Williams 2014
- Lashmar 2000
- Hansard 1942
- Bradbeer, Thomas (May 12, 2016). "Frederick Rutland: Tinker, Sailor, Aviator, Spy". Weider History Group. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hansard (22 January 1942). "HC Deb 22 January 1942 vol 377 cc439". Hansard. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- The Daily Telegraph (10 November 2000). "Royal Navy hero officer 'was spy for Japanese'". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Everest-Phillips, Max (17 July 2006). "Reassessing pre-war Japanese espionage: The Rutland naval spy case and the Japanese intelligence threat before Pearl Harbor". Intelligence and National Security. 21 (2): 258–285. doi:10.1080/02684520600620732. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Fleet Air Arm Museum (2017). "Short 184 (8359)". Fleet Air Arm Museum. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Flight International (5 February 1915). "Aviator's Certificates". Flight International. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Flight International (13 July 1916). "Aircraft In The Naval Battle". Flight International. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Imperial War Museum (2017). "Lieutenant Frederick Joseph Rutland". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lashmar, Paul (10 November 2000). "Revealed: The man who started World War Two". The Independent. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Layman, R. D. (1989). Before the aircraft carrier: the development of aviation vessels, 1849–1922. Conway Maritime. ISBN 9780851775166. - Total pages: 128
- The London Gazette (16 March 1915). "London Gazette Issue 29102". The London Gazette. British government.
- The London Gazette 29434 (11 January 1916). "London Gazette Issue 29434". The London Gazette. British government.
- The London Gazette 29703 (11 August 1916). "His bravery is reported to have been magnificent". The London Gazette. British government.
- The London Gazette 29751 (15 September 1916). "London Gazette Issue 29751". The London Gazette. British government.
- The London Gazette (28 September 1917). "London Gazette Issue 30316". The London Gazette. British government.
- The London Gazette (18 September 1923). "London Gazette Issue 32863". The London Gazette. British government.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (10 November 2000). "British flying ace was spy for Japan". The Guardian. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Raven, Alan; Roberts, John Arthur (1976). British battleships of World War Two: the development and technical history of the Royal Navy's battleships and battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9780870218170. - Total pages: 436
- Smith, Michael (2001). The Emperor's Codes: The Breaking of Japan's Secret Ciphers. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 9781559705684. - Total pages: 323
- Sturtivant, Ray (1990). British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9780870210266. - Total pages: 224
- Williams, Allan (2014). Operation Crossbow: The Untold Story of Photographic Intelligence and the Search for Hitler's V Weapons. Random House. ISBN 9780099557333. - Total pages: 464
- Young, Desmond (1963). Rutland of Jutland. Cassell. - Total pages: 191