Frederick VIII of Denmark
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Painting by Otto Bache, 1910
|King of Denmark |
|Reign||29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912|
|Born||Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg|
3 June 1843
The Yellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
|Died||14 May 1912 (aged 68)|
Hamburg, German Empire
Louise of Sweden
(m. 1869; died 1926)
|Father||Christian IX of Denmark|
|Mother||Louise of Hesse-Kassel|
Frederick VIII (Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl) (3 June 1843 – 14 May 1912) was King of Denmark from 1906 to 1912.
Before his accession to the throne at age 62, he served as crown prince for over 42 years. During the long reign of his father, King Christian IX, he was largely excluded from influence and political power.
Frederick was born on 3 June 1843 in the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen as Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a junior male line of the House of Oldenburg, which was descended from Christian III of Denmark and which had ruled as non-sovereign dukes in Schleswig-Holstein for eight generations, including Frederick's grandfather. Frederick's parents were Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Louise of Hesse-Kassel.
In 1853, his father was chosen as the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, because Frederick's mother, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, was a close relative of the last Danish king of the Oldenburg main line (the other heirs of the House of Hesse renounced their claims to the Danish throne in favour of Louise and her husband). Accordingly, Frederick became a Prince of Denmark in 1853.
After his confirmation in 1860, Frederick was given a military education. In 1863, Prince Frederick was sent to do studies at the University of Oxford but when his father ascended the throne in November that year, he became Crown Prince and returned to Denmark.
As Crown Prince of Denmark, he was given a seat in the State Council and subsequently assisted his father in the duties of government.
Louise of Hesse wanted her eldest son to marry as well as her two daughters, Alexandra and Dagmar, had. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom had two yet unmarried daughters, Princess Helena and Princess Louise, and Louise tried to marry Frederick to one of them. However, the British Queen didn't want her daughters to marry the heirs to foreign crowns, as this would force them to live abroad. She preferred German princes who could establish homes in the UK. In addition, Victoria had always been pro-German and another Danish alliance (Frederick's sister, Alexandra, had married Victoria's eldest son, the Prince of Wales), would not have been in line with her German interests.
In July 1868, Frederick became engaged to Princess Louise of Sweden, the 17-year-old only daughter of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway. Princess Louise's family was related by marriage to Napoleon Bonaparte. She belonged to the Bernadotte dynasty, which had ruled in Sweden since 1818, when the founder, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's generals, was elected crown prince of Sweden in 1810 and later succeeded the throne as Charles XIV of Sweden in 1818. He married Désirée Clary, who had once been engaged to the French Emperor. Charles XIV's son, Oscar I of Sweden, married Josephine of Leuchtenberg, granddaughter of Napoleon's first wife, the Empress Josephine. King Oscar I and Queen Josephine were Princess Louise's paternal grandparents.
The marriage was suggested as a way of creating friendship between Denmark and Sweden. The two countries were in a tense situation after Sweden had not assisted Denmark during the war with Prussia in 1864. Frederick and Louise had met for the first time in 1862, but in 1868 Frederick was invited to Sweden to get to know Louise, and their meeting was described as a success. They became engaged the same year. She was the first Swedish princess to be married into the Danish royal house since the Middle Ages, and the marriage was welcomed in all three Scandinavian countries as a symbol of the new Scandinavism.
Crown Prince Frederick and Louise of Sweden married at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 28 July 1869. The couple resided at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, spending the summers at Charlottenlund Palace north of the city. They had four sons and four daughters. The marriage was not a happy one, nor did it have any effect on the relationship between the two countries.
Frederick became king of Denmark as Frederick VIII on Christian IX's death on 29 January 1906. He was 62 years old at the time and had been Crown Prince for 43 years.
In many ways Frederick VIII was a liberal ruler who was much more favorable to the new parliamentarian system than his father had been. Because of his very late accession to the throne he had only a few years to show his ability and he was weakened by ill health.
On his return journey from a trip to Nice, King Frederick made a short stop in Hamburg, staying at the Hotel Hamburger Hof. The evening of his arrival on 14 May 1912, Frederick (incognito) took a walk on the Jungfernstieg. While walking he became faint and collapsed on a park bench and died. He was discovered by a police officer who took him to a Hafen hospital where he was pronounced dead. His cause of death was announced as a paralysis-attack. He was interred with other members of the Danish royal family in Roskilde Cathedral near Copenhagen.
The royal families of Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Luxembourg are descended from King Frederick VIII. Denmark comes naturally, Norway's family goes through the line of his son, Prince Carl, and the families of Belgium and Luxembourg are descended from his daughter, Princess Ingeborg of Denmark.
Titles, styles and honours
Frederick VIII of Denmark
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
Titles and styles
- 3 June 1843 – 31 July 1853: His Highness Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
- 31 July 1853 – 21 December 1858: His Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 21 December 1858 – 15 November 1863: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 15 November 1863 – 29 January 1906: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark
- 29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912: His Majesty The King of Denmark
His full style was Frederick VIII, By the Grace of God, King of Denmark, of the Wends and of the Goths; Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, the Ditmarsh, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
King Frederick VIII Land in Greenland is named after him.
- National honours
- Knight of the Elephant, 3 June 1861
- Grand Commander, Order of the Dannebrog, 28 July 1869
- Cross of Honour of the Order of the Dannebrog
- Commemorative Medal for the Golden Wedding of King Christian IX and Queen Louise
- Foreign honours
- Duchy of Anhalt: Grand Cross, Order of Albert the Bear
- Austria-Hungary: Grand Cross, Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, 1873
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert
- Belgium: Grand Cordon, Royal Order of Leopold I
- Kingdom of Bulgaria:
- France: Grand Cross, Legion d'Honneur
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross, Order of the Redeemer
- Kingdom of Hawaii: Grand Cross, Royal Order of Kalākaua
- Grand Duchy of Hesse: Grand Cross, Ludwig Order, 5 May 1865
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Annunciation, 1876
- Empire of Japan: Collar, Order of the Chrysanthemum
- Mecklenburg: Grand Cross in Diamonds, House Order of the Wendish Crown, 1884
- Nassau: Knight of the Golden Lion of Nassau
- Netherlands: Grand Cross, Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross with Golden Crown, House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis
- Ottoman Empire: Osmanieh Order, 1st Class in Diamonds
- Kingdom of Portugal:
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Kingdom of Romania:
- Russian Empire:
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross, Order of the White Falcon
- Kingdom of Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown
- Spain: Knight of the Golden Fleece, 1883
- United Kingdom:
- Honorary military appointments
- Colonel-in-Chief of The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) (United Kingdom)
- General à la suite of the Swedish Army, 1891 (Sweden-Norway)
|Christian X of Denmark||26 September 1870||20 April 1947||Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin||Frederik IX of Denmark|
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark
|Haakon VII of Norway||3 August 1872||21 September 1957||Princess Maud of Wales||Olav V of Norway|
|Princess Louise of Denmark||17 February 1875||4 April 1906||Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe||Marie Louise, Princess Friedrich Sigismund of Prussia|
Prince Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe
Stephanie, Princess Viktor Adolf of Bentheim and Steinfurt
|Prince Harald of Denmark||8 October 1876||30 March 1949||Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg||Feodora, Princess Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe|
Caroline-Mathilde, Hereditary Princess of Denmark
Alexandrine-Louise, Countess Luitpold of Castell-Castell
Prince Gorm of Denmark
Count Oluf of Rosenborg
|Princess Ingeborg of Denmark||2 August 1878||12 March 1958||Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland||Margaretha, Princess Axel of Denmark|
Märtha Louise, Crown Princess of Norway
Astrid, Queen of the Belgians
Prince Carl, Duke of Östergötland
|Princess Thyra of Denmark||4 March 1880||2 November 1945||unmarried||none|
|Prince Gustav of Denmark||4 March 1887||5 October 1944||unmarried||none|
|Princess Dagmar of Denmark||23 May 1890||11 October 1961||Jørgen Castenskiold||Carl Castenskiold|
Christian Frederik Castenskjold
- Kongelig Dansk Hof-og Statskalendar (1900) (in Danish), "De Kongelig Danske Ridderordener", pp. 4, 6
- Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1912 (1912) page 33
- Kongelig ... Statskalendar (1912) (in Danish), "De Kongelig Danske Ridderordener", p. 3
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 12
- Corston, Daniel mecklenburg-strelitz.org "Unofficial website dedicated to the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz"
- Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "Norges Statskalender (1890) pp. 593-594" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- "Sveriges Statskalender (1909) p. 613" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- "Sveriges Statskalender (1905) p. 605" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 212
- Shaw, p. 70
- Shaw, p. 424
- "No. 27292". The London Gazette. 8 March 1901. p. 1647.
- Shaw, p. 415
- "155 (Svensk rikskalender / 1909)". runeberg.org (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frederick VIII of Denmark.|
- The Royal Lineage at the website of the Danish Monarchy
- Frederik VIII at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
Cadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 3 June 1843 Died: 14 May 1912
| King of Denmark