Free-form deformation

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In computer graphics, free-form deformation (FFD) is a geometric technique used to model simple deformations of rigid objects. It is based on the idea of enclosing an object within a cube or another hull object, and transforming the object within the hull as the hull is deformed. Deformation of the hull is based on the concept of so-called hyper-patches, which are three-dimensional analogs of parametric curves such as Bézier curves, B-splines, or NURBs. The technique was first described by Thomas W. Sederberg and Scott R. Parry in 1986,[1] and is based on an earlier technique by Alan Barr.[2] It was extended by Coquillart to a technique described as extended free-form deformation, which refines the hull object by introducing additional geometry or by using different hull objects such as cylinders and prisms.[3]



  1. ^ Sederberg, Thomas W.; Parry, Scott R. (1986). "Free-form deformation of solid geometric models". SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics. 20 (4): 151–160. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/15886.15903.
  2. ^ Barr, A. H. (July 1984). Global and local deformations of solid primitives. SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics. 18. pp. 21–30. doi:10.1145/800031.808573. ISBN 978-0897911382.
  3. ^ Coquillart, S. (September 1990). "Extended free-form deformation: a sculpturing tool for 3D geometric modeling" (PDF). SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics. 24 (4): 187–196. doi:10.1145/97880.97900.
  4. ^ Nonrigid Registration Using Free-Form Deformations: Application to Breast MR Images

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