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This article is about the business model for video games. For related business models in a more general case, see freemium. For the film, see Free to Play (film).

Free-to-play (F2P) refers to video games which give players access to a significant portion of their content without paying. There are several kinds of free-to-play games, but the most common is based on the freemium software model. For freemium games, users are granted access to a fully functional game, but must pay microtransactions to access additional content. Free-to-play can be contrasted with pay-to-play, in which payment is required before using a service for the first time.

The model was first popularly used in early massively multiplayer online games targeted towards casual gamers, before finding wider adoption among games released by major video game publishers to combat video game piracy and high system requirements. Without up front payment, publishers may charge money for in-game items or integrate advertisements into the game.


There are several kinds of free-to-play games:

Game mechanics[edit]

In-game items can be purely cosmetic, enhance the power of the player, or accelerate progression speed. A common technique used by developers of these games is for the items purchased to have a time limit; after this expires, the item must be repurchased before use can continue. Another commonly seen mechanic is the use of two in-game currencies: one earned through normal gameplay, and another which can be purchased with real-world money. The second, "premium" currency is sometimes given out in small amounts to non-paying players at certain times, such as when they first start the game, or when they complete a quest or refer a friend to the game. Many browser games have an "energy bar" which depletes when the player takes actions. These games then sell items such as coffee or snacks to refill the bar.[5]

Free-to-play games are free to install and play, but once the player enters the game, the player is able to purchase content such as items, maps, and expanded customization options.[6] Some games, such as id Software's Quake Live[7] also use in-game advertising to provide income for free-to-play games. In addition to making in-game items available for purchase, EA integrates in-game advertising into its games. In August 2007, EA completed a deal with Massive Incorporated, which lets Massive update and change in-game advertising in real-time within EA games.[8] Independent game developer Edmund McMillen, has claimed that he makes most of his money from sponsors by placing advertisements into the introduction of a game and the game's title screen.


The free-to-play model originated in the late 1990s and early 2000s, coming from a series of highly successful MMOs targeted towards children and casual gamers, including Furcadia, Neopets, RuneScape,[9][10] MapleStory, and text-based dungeons such as Achaea, Dreams of Divine Lands.[11] Known for producing innovative titles, small independent developers also continue to release free-to-play games. The Internet has been cited[by whom?] as a primary influence on the increased usage of the free-to-play model, particularly among larger video game companies, and critics point to the ever-increasing need for free content that is available wherever and whenever as causes.

Particularly early on, free-to-play games caught on fastest in South Korea and Russia, where they took over 90% of the gaming market.[citation needed] There are free-to-play, pay-to-connect games where there is no charge for playing, but often the free servers are congested.[12] Access to uncongested servers is reserved for fee-paying members. Free-to-play games are particularly prevalent in countries such as South Korea and the People's Republic of China.[6][13] Microtransaction-based free-to-play mobile games and browser games such as Puzzle & Dragons, Kantai Collection and The Idolmaster Cinderella Girls also have large player populations in Japan.[14] In particular, the Nikkei Shimbun reported that Cinderella Girls earns over 1 billion yen in revenue monthly from microtransactions.[15] Electronic Arts first adopted the free-to-play concept in one of its games when it released FIFA Online in Korea.[8]

In the late 2000s, many MMOs transitioned to the free-to-play model from subscriptions,[16] including subscription-based games such as The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar, Age of Conan: Hyborian Adventures, Dungeons & Dragons Online,[17] and Champions Online.[6] This move from a subscription based model to a free-to-play one has proven very beneficial in some cases. Star Wars: The Old Republic is a good example of a game that transitioned from subscription to free-to-play.[1] Turbine as of September 10, 2010 has given an F2P with Cash shop option to The Lord of the Rings Online which resulted in a tripling of profit.[18] Sony Online Entertainment's move to transition EverQuest from a subscription model into a hybrid F2P/subscription game was followed by a 125% spike in item sales, a 150% up-tick in unique log-ins, and over three times as many account registrations.[19]

The movement of free-to-play MMOs into the mainstream also coincided with experimentation with other genres as well. The model was picked up by larger developers and more diverse genres, with games such as Battlefield Heroes,[8] Free Realms, Quake Live and Team Fortress 2[7] appearing in the late 2000s. The experimentation was not successful in every genre, however. Traditional real time strategy franchises such as Age of Empires and Command & Conquer both attempted free-to-play titles. Age of Empires Online was shut down in the midst of a tiny player base and stagnant revenue,[20] and Command & Conquer: Generals 2 was shut down in alpha due to negative reactions from players.[21]

In 2011, revenue from free-to-play games overtook revenue from premium games in the top 100 games in Apple's App Store.[22] The number of people that spend money on in-game items in these games ranges from 0.5% to 6%, depending on a game's quality and mechanics. Even though this means that a large number of people will never spend money in a game, it also means that the people that do spend money could amount to a sizeable number due to the fact that the game was given away for free.[22] Indeed a report from mobile advertising company firm SWRV stated that only 1.5 percent of players opted to pay for in-game items, and that 50 percent of the revenue for such games often came from just ten percent of players.[23] Nevertheless the Washington Post noted that two such games, Clash of Clans and Game of War: Fire Age, were able to be able to afford Super Bowl spots in 2015 featuring big-name celebrities.[23] The latter, Game Of War, was in fact, part of a roughly $40 million dollar campaign starring model Kate Upton.

As of 2012, free-to-play MOBAs, such as League of Legends, and Dota 2 have become among the most popular PC games.[24] The success in the genre has helped convince many video game publishers to copy the free-to-play MOBA model.[25][26]

Comparison with traditional model[edit]

The free-to-play model has been described as a shift from the traditional model in the sense that previously, success was measured by multiplying the number of units of a game sold by the unit price, while with free-to-play, the most important factor is the number of players that a game can keep continuously engaged, followed by how many compelling spending opportunities the game offers its players. With free games that include in-game purchases, two particularly important things occur: first, more people will try out the game since there is zero cost to doing so and second, revenue will likely be more than a traditional game since different players can now spend different amounts of money that depend on their engagement with the game and their preferences towards it. It is likely that the vast majority of players "ride for free" and that a minority pay, and a very tiny minority pay the bulk of the income - 50% of revenue from 0.15% (15 in 10,000) of players in one report.[27] It is not unlikely for a very few players to spend tens of thousands of dollars in a game that they enjoy.[22]

On the PC in particular, two problems are video game piracy and high video game system requirements. The free-to-play model appears to solve both these problems, by providing a game that requires relatively low system requirements and no cost, and consequently provides a highly accessible experience funded by advertising and micropayments for extra content.[7]

Free-to-play is much newer than the pay to play model, and the video game industry is still attempting to determine the best ways to maximize revenue from their games. Gamers have cited the fact that purchasing a game for a fixed price is still inherently satisfying because the consumer knows exactly what they will be receiving, compared to free-to-play which requires that the player pay for most new content that they wish to obtain. The term itself, "free-to-play", has been described as one with a negative connotation. One video game developer noted this, stating, "Our hope—and the basket we're putting our eggs in—is that 'free' will soon be disassociated with [sic] 'shallow' and 'cruddy'." However, another noted that developing freeware games gave developers the largest amount of creative freedom, especially when compared to developing console games, which requires that the game follow the criteria as laid out by the game's publisher.[7] Many kinds of revenue are being experimented with. For example, with its Free Realms game targeted to children and casual gamers, Sony makes money from the product with advertisements on loading screens, free virtual goods sponsored by companies such as Best Buy, a subscription option to unlock extra content, a collectible card game, a comic book, and micropayment items that include character customization options.[7]


In some multiplayer free-to-play games, players who are willing to pay for special items or downloadable content may be able to gain a significant advantage over those playing for free. Critics of such games call them "pay-to-win" (p2w) games. A common suggestion for avoiding pay-to-win is that payments should only be used to broaden the experience without affecting gameplay.[28] Some suggest finding a balance between a game that encourages players to pay for extra content that enhances the game without making the free version feel limited by comparison.[29] This theory is that players who do not pay for items would still increase awareness of it through word of mouth marketing, which ultimately benefits the game indirectly. In response to concerns about players using payments to gain an advantage in game, titles such as World of Tanks have explicitly committed to not giving paying players any advantages over their non-paying peers, while allowing the users buying the "gold" (premium) ammo and expendables without paying the real money. However, features helping to win more, such as purchasing a 100% training level or converting experience to free experience, remain available for the paying customers only.[30][31]

In single player games, another concern is the tendency for free games to constantly request that the player buy extra content. Payment may be required in order to survive or continue in the game, annoying or distracting the player from the experience.[7] Some psychologists, such as Mark D. Griffiths, have criticized the mechanics of freemium games as exploitative, drawing direct parallels to gambling addiction.[32] Furthermore, the ubiquitous and often intrusive use of microtransactions in free-to-play games have sometimes caused children to either inadvertently or deliberately pay for large amounts of virtual goods, often for drastically high amounts of real money. In February 2013, Eurogamer reported that Apple had agreed to refund a British family one thousand, seven hundred pounds and forty-one pence after their son had racked up countless microtransactions whilst playing the F2P game Zombies vs. Ninjas. [33]


Pointing to the disruptive effect of free-to-play on current models, IGN editor Charles Onyett has said "expensive, one-time purchases are facing extinction". He believes that the current method of paying a one-time fee for most games will eventually disappear completely.[6] Greg Zeschuk, of BioWare believes there is a good possibility that free-to-play would become the dominant pricing plan for games, but that it was very unlikely that it would ever completely replace subscription-based games.[13] Developers such as Electronic Arts have pointed to the success of freemium, saying that microtransactions will inevitably be part of every game.[34] While noting the success of some developers with the model, companies such as Nintendo have remained skeptical of free-to-play, preferring to stick to more traditional models of game development and sales.[35]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Tack, Daniel (October 12, 2013). "The Subscrition Transition: MMORPGs and Free-To-Play". Forbes magazine. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  2. ^ Lejacq, Yannick (December 13, 2012). "Freemium Games Make Up 80% Of $10B Mobile App Market In 2012: Flurry Report". The International Business Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  3. ^ Gill, Bobby (December 14, 2012). "‘Freemium’ Games Pave the Way to Riches for App Developers". Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  4. ^ LeJacq, Yannick (September 15, 2012). "Something For Nothing: How The Videogame Industry Is Adapting To A 'Freemium' World". The International Business Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  5. ^ Davis, Justin (July 20, 2012). "The Dark Future of Freemium Games, and How We Can Avoid It". IGN Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d Onyett, Charles (August 2, 2011). "Death of the Disc-Based Game". IGN. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Meer, Alec (March 12, 2009). "Is free really the future of gaming?". TechRadar. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c Evans, Dean (January 21, 2008). "Free EA games herald greater in-game advertising". TechRadar. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  9. ^ Griliopoulos, Dan (June 27, 2012). "The Longest Game: The Making of RuneScape". PCGamesN. Retrieved June 27, 2012. 
  10. ^ "RuneScape in Guinness World Records!". RuneScape News. Jagex. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on July 29, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2008. 
  11. ^ Davis, Steven (2009), Protecting Games, p. 228, ISBN 978-1-58450-670-6 
  12. ^ "online games". 
  13. ^ a b Kelly, Neon (May 11, 2010). "BioWare on subscriptions vs free-to-play". VideoGamer. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  14. ^ 2013-09-27, ツイート数は「パズドラ」より「艦これ」 【ゲームの課金についてのツイート分析】, MarkeZine
  15. ^ "Idolmaster Mobile Game Earns 1 Billion Yen a Month". Anime News Network. September 27, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  16. ^ Daniel Tack (October 9, 2013). "The Subscription Transition: MMORPGs And Free-To-Play". Forbes. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ DDO-Eberron-Unlimited-Gets-New-Release-Date " Article". July 31, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  18. ^ "News - Turbine: Lord of the Rings Online Revenues Tripled As Free-To-Play Game". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  19. ^ Reahard, Jef (April 17, 2012). "SOE trumpets EverQuest's F2P success". Joystiq. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  20. ^ Alexa Ray Corriea (August 19, 2013). "Age of Empires Online's lack of new content drove revenue loss". Polygon. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  21. ^ Michael McWhertor (October 29, 2013). "EA cancels Command & Conquer, closes development studio". Polygon. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c Valadares, Jeferson (July 11, 2011). "Free-to-play Revenue Overtakes Premium Revenue in the App Store". Flurry. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  23. ^ a b Peterson, Andrea. "How two ‘free’ games made enough money to buy Super Bowl Ads". Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  24. ^ Gaudiosi, John (July 11, 2012). "Riot Games' League Of Legends Officially Becomes Most Played PC Game In The World". Forbes. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  25. ^ Drain, Brendan (July 3, 2012). "The Soapbox: League of Legends is the new World of Warcraft". Joystiq. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  26. ^ Stapleton, Dan (June 1, 2012). "Valve: We Won't Charge for Dota 2 Heroes". GameSpy. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ Charles Onyett (August 13, 2012). "Separating Free-to-Play and Pay to Win". Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  29. ^ Pritpaul Bains and Theresa Delucci (August 9, 2013). "Gaming Roundup: What’s Wrong With Free-to-Play?". Tor books. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  30. ^ Kris Graft (June 3, 2013). "Wargaming kicks 'pay-to-win' monetization to the curb". GamaSutra. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  31. ^ Jenna Pitcher (June 3, 2013). "Wargaming axes pay-to-win model in favor of free-to-win". Polygon. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  32. ^ Mike Rose (July 9, 2013). "Chasing the Whale: Examining the ethics of free-to-play games". Gamasutra. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ Eddie Makuch (July 30, 2012). "Freemium is the future, says EA". GameSpot. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  35. ^ Eddie Makuch (February 3, 2014). "Nintendo: Free-to-play is hurting our hardware business". GameSpot. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 

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