Free the nipple

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A campaign participant at the World Naked Bike Ride in London, June 2015

Free the Nipple is a topfreedom campaign created in 2012 during pre-production of a 2014 film of the same name.[1][2] The campaign highlights the general convention of allowing men to appear topless in public while considering it sexual or indecent for women to do the same, and asserts that this difference is an unjust treatment of women. The campaign argues that it should be legally and culturally acceptable for women to bare their nipples in public.[3]

History[edit]

In 2012, filmmaker Lina Esco started this campaign in New York City. She created a documentary of herself running through the streets of New York topless. As the documentary was being made, she posted teaser clips with the hashtag #FreeTheNipple. In 2013, Facebook removed these clips from its website for violating its guidelines. In 2014, several celebrities such as Miley Cyrus, Lena Dunham, Chelsea Handler, Rihanna and Chrissy Teigen posted photos on social media to show their support of Esco's initiative.[4]

Two protesters, Tiernan Hebron and UCSD graduate student Anni Ma[5][6] were arrested for indecent exposure outside of a campaign appearance for Senator Bernie Sanders on March 23, 2016. They appeared topless except for pieces of tape over their nipples, and had the words "Free the Nipple", "Equality", and "Feel the Bern" written on their chests. Los Angeles Police officers asked them to cover their breasts, and the two women refused and were arrested. They were held for 25 hours in jail but were not charged with any crime. After being released, Ma filed a federal lawsuit against the Los Angeles Police Department. Ma said that her action was not lewd because mammary glands are not sexual organs, but rather have the purpose of breastfeeding children, and said she believed she did not at any point show her "genitals" or "private parts". Her attorney claims she was never "nude" and that California's indecent exposure law applies only to genitals, not breasts. Her lawsuit also alleged that her constitutional rights had been violated, that she had been subject to unlawful gender discrimination, and that federal civil rights laws had been violated.[7] She was topless at a Bernie Sanders campaign rally, March 19, 2016, in Phoenix, Arizona, and she was led to the back of the venue without incident.[8] On 23 January 2016, Anni Ma, as a FEMEN activist, Carly Mitchell, Chelsea Ducote and Marston protested at a "Walk For Life" event at the San Francisco City Hall and the Civic Center.[9][6]

Historically, women have sometimes been arrested or charged with public indecency, disturbing the peace, or lewd behavior for baring their breasts in public, even in jurisdictions where there was no law explicitly prohibiting doing so.[10] In New York state, female toplessness was made legal around 1990, and when a woman was arrested there in 2005 for appearing topless in public, a court ruled in her favor and she later received US$29,000 in damages.[11]

In 2015, the campaign received attention in Iceland after a teenage student activist posted a photo of herself topless and was harassed for doing so. In support of the student and the initiative, Björt Ólafsdóttir, a Member of Parliament, posted a topless photo of herself in solidarity.[12]

26 August 2017, Edinburgh, Fringe: Nobody looks at the topless man

Free the Nipple events were held in Brighton, England, in 2016,[13] 2017[13][14][15] and 2018.[16] The Free the Nipple Brighton group[17] is headed up by Bee Nicholls and Mickey F, both of Brighton.[18]

In 2017 a Free The Nipple event was held in Hull, England, on the day also celebrated as Women's Equality Day and Go Topless Day, the anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920 which gave US women the right to vote.[19]

Court cases[edit]

Various court cases in the United States have involved the question of whether women may publicly expose female breasts. Two examples are Erie v. Pap's A.[20] and Barnes v. Glen Theatre.[21] These involved ordinances that placed restrictions on how women were legally permitted to appear in public, focusing on banning any public exposure of the female breasts. A lawsuit was filed as Free the Nipple v. City of Fort Collins,[22] which was an attempt to remove the provision in the municipal code of Fort Collins, Colorado, that prohibits women from revealing their breasts. The federal lawsuit was won at the appellate level. In September 2019, after spending over $300,000, Fort Collins decided to stop defending their ordinance and repeal it. That effectively gave women of all ages the right to go topless wherever men can in the jurisdiction of the 10th Circuit (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma states as well as all counties and cities therein).[23]

There are two U.S. states where the mere showing of women's breasts is illegal: Indiana[24] and Tennessee.[citation needed][25] Fourteen states and many other cities have laws with ambiguous implications on how much a woman is allowed to expose her body.[citation needed]

Social media campaign[edit]

Every major social media platform has their own guideline and policy in regards to nudity and revealing nipples. Facebook only allows photos of nipples to be posted when it is "in the context of breastfeeding, birth giving and after-birth moments, health (for example, post-mastectomy, breast cancer awareness, or gender confirmation surgery), or an act of protest."[26]

Instagram's guideline for nudity states "We know that there are times when people might want to share nude images that are artistic or creative in nature, but for a variety of reasons, we don't allow nudity on Instagram. This includes photos, videos, and some digitally-created content that show sexual intercourse, genitals, and close-ups of fully-nude buttocks. It also includes some photos of female nipples, but photos of post-mastectomy scarring and women actively breastfeeding are allowed. Nudity in photos of paintings and sculptures is OK, too."[27] This is an update from Instagram's historic community guidelines, which included the ambiguous phrase 'keep your clothes on.' [28] Instagram's CEO Kevin Systrom said that because of the Apple's App Store regulations, every app needs an age rating. If an app contains nudity, it has to be rated 17+. The CEO would prefer Instagram remain at its current rating of 12+, to attract a younger audience.[29]

Pinterest allows artistic and non-sexualized nudity.[30] Their reasoning on why they allow nudity and mature content is for "art, safe sex education or advocacy for political protests".

Differing rules are applied by other social media and these change with time. In 2014 YouTube had no specific policy that barred nipples but the platform did not allow sexually explicit material. Google+ had a policy of not allowing nipples to be shown unless they were in cartoons. Flickr and Tumblr allowed users to control how much nudity they wanted to see, but when the filtering was switched off there were no restictions. Twitter placed no restrictions on female nudity.[31] In 2018 Tumblr changed its rules to ban "female-presenting nipples" and other nudity[32] and Google+ was shut down in 2019.[33]

A tactic that activists have taken up is the use of the hashtag #FreeTheNipple. This tag has been used on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, where it can be used for searching the databases for posts with the same tag.[34]

Some celebrities have expressed support for the #FreeTheNipple movement on social media, including Miley Cyrus,[35] Lena Dunham,[35] Jennifer Aniston,[36] Scout Willis,[37] Rihanna,[38] Cara Delevingne,[39] and Naomi Campbell.[40] Miley Cyrus said, "The nipple, what you can't show, is what everyone has. But the jug part that everybody doesn't, you're allowed to show underboob. I've never understood the way it works" on Jimmy Kimmel Live where she spoke about the campaign.[41][42]

Film and television[edit]

In 2014, director Lina Esco released her American feature film Free the Nipple. The film is centered around a group of young women who take to the streets of New York City as they protest the legal and cultural taboos regarding female breasts by way of publicity stunts, graffiti installations, and First Amendment lawyers. After shooting the film in 2012, Esco found it difficult to get the film widely released, motivating her to start the campaign in December 2013.[43][44]

In episode 106 of The Bold Type, the main character, Kat, participates in the campaign on social media by going against Instagram's guidelines by posting pictures with male nipples pasted onto women's bodies. The character said that freeing the nipple is more than just about Instagram and more about equality.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jenny Kutner (16 December 2014). ""Maybe America just needs a big blast of boobies": Lina Esco tells Salon about her topless crusade to free the nipple". Salon.com. Retrieved 2015-04-04.
  2. ^ Esco, Lina (9 December 2013). "Why I Made a Film Called Free the Nipple and Why I'm Being Censored in America". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  3. ^ Höfner, Susan. "Free the Nipple!". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[dead link]
  4. ^ West, Sarah Myers (22 September 2017). "Raging Against the Machine: Network Gatekeeping and Collective Action on Social Media Platforms". Media and Communication. 5 (3): 28–36. doi:10.17645/mac.v5i3.989. ISSN 2183-2439.
  5. ^ Citations:
  6. ^ a b Anni Ma (26 July 2016). "#FreeTheNipple Arrest outside of San Diego Comic Con" – via YouTube.
  7. ^ Citations:
  8. ^ Citations:
  9. ^ Citations:
  10. ^ "The Weird, Wild Legal History of Breasts and Nipples". Yahoo Health. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
  11. ^ NBC News. "NYC pays $29,000 over topless arrest" Associated Press, New York, 18 June 2007. Retrieved on 1 March 2015.
  12. ^ Heawood, Sophie (6 April 2015). "#FreeTheNipple: liberation or titillation?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  13. ^ a b Wallace, Nigel (9 June 2016). "Hundreds strip off on Brighton Beach to stop social media boob ban". The Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  14. ^ Citations:
  15. ^ "freethenipbrighton". facebook.com.
  16. ^ Hendy, Arron (14 July 2018). "Free the Nipple organisers vow to return to protest topless". The Argus. Brighton. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  17. ^ "Who are we?". Free the Nipple Brighton. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  18. ^ SK (2018-07-02). "Free The Nipple Takes To Brighton Seafront". Sussex Local. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  19. ^ Mackley, Elizabeth (26 August 2017). "Why these women went topless on Hessle Foreshore today". Hull Daily Mail.
  20. ^ "Erie v. Pap's AM, 529 US 277 - Supreme Court 2000 - Google Scholar".
  21. ^ "Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc., 501 US 560 - Supreme Court 1991 - Google Scholar".
  22. ^ "Free the Nipple v. City of Ft. Collins, 216 F. Supp. 3d 1258 - Dist. Court, D. Colorado 2016 - Google Scholar".
  23. ^ Williams, Peter (September 20, 2019). "Topless women win big as Colorado city drops ban". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  24. ^ "Chicago's ban on uncovered women's breasts upheld by divided court". Chicago Tribune. November 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
  25. ^ "Nudity and Public Decency Laws in America". HG.org. n.d. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  26. ^ "Community Standards | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
  27. ^ "Community Guidelines – Instagram Help Center". Instagram.
  28. ^ Olszanowski, Magdalena (2014-04-03). "Feminist Self-Imaging and Instagram: Tactics of Circumventing Sensorship". Visual Communication Quarterly. 21 (2): 83–95. doi:10.1080/15551393.2014.928154. ISSN 1555-1393. S2CID 145667227.
  29. ^ Morrish, Lydia (5 October 2015). "Here's the real reason Instagram won't #FreeTheNipple". Konbini. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015.
  30. ^ "Nudity". help.pinterest.com.
  31. ^ Taylor, Alix (20 June 2014). "Your Concise Guide to Social Media's Female Nipple Policies". Hyperallergenic.
  32. ^ Liao, Shannon (3 December 2018). "Tumblr will ban all adult content on December 17th". The Verge.
  33. ^ Schroeder, Stan (2 April 2019). "Google+ dies today". Mashable.
  34. ^ West, Sarah Myers (22 September 2017). "Raging Against the Machine: Network Gatekeeping and Collective Action on Social Media Platforms". Media and Communication. Lisbon: Cogitatio. 5 (3): 28–36. doi:10.17645/mac.v5i3.989. ISSN 2183-2439. Retrieved 2017-11-15.
  35. ^ a b Bussel, Rachel Kramer (12 December 2014). "Free the Nipple! The Problem With How We Think About Breasts". Time.
  36. ^ Branch, Kate (10 August 2017). "Jennifer Aniston on Bringing the #FreeTheNipple Movement to the Masses First". Vogue.
  37. ^ Weinstock, Tish (4 June 2014). "The nipple controversy". Vice. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  38. ^ Donahue, Rosemary (3 August 2017). "18 Times Celebrities Freed the Nipple (NSFW)". Allure.
  39. ^ Klein, Alyssa Vingan (11 July 2014). "Cara Delevingne Goes Topless For 'Free The Nipple' Campaign". Fashionista.
  40. ^ Noriega, Margarita (16 September 2015). "Naomi Campbell's #FreeTheNipple photo couldn't survive Instagram's silly nudity rules". Vox.
  41. ^ Zeilinger, Julie (27 August 2015). "Miley Cyrus Made a Brilliant Point About Why We Must Free the Nipple". Mic.
  42. ^ Kaplan, Ilana (20 May 2016). "Miley Cyrus Showed Her Nipples Off On Instagram Without Being Reported". Paper. New York City.
  43. ^ "The Naked Truth Behind the 'Free the Nipple' Movement". Etonline.com. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-04.
  44. ^ Siegemund-Broka, Austin (29 September 2014). "'Free The Nipple' Picked Up By Sundance Selects For North American Release". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
  45. ^ Romero, Ariana (9 August 2017). "The Bold Type Proves Freeing the Nipple is About So Much More than Instagram". Refinery29.

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