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Freedom from Want

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Freedom from Want
A large family gathered at a table for a holiday meal as the turkey arrives at the table.
ArtistNorman Rockwell
MediumOil on canvas
Dimensions116.2 cm × 90 cm (45.75 in × 35.5 in)
LocationNorman Rockwell Museum,
Stockbridge, Massachusetts,
United States

Freedom from Want, also known as The Thanksgiving Picture or I'll Be Home for Christmas, is the third of the Four Freedoms series of four oil paintings by American artist Norman Rockwell. The works were inspired by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms.

The painting was created in November 1942 and published in the March 6, 1943, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. All of the people in the picture were friends and family of Rockwell in Arlington, Vermont, who were photographed individually and painted into the scene. The work depicts a group of people gathered around a dinner table for a holiday meal. Having been partially created on Thanksgiving Day to depict the celebration, it has become an iconic representation for Americans of the Thanksgiving holiday and family holiday gatherings in general. The Post published Freedom from Want with a corresponding essay by Carlos Bulosan as part of the Four Freedoms series. Despite many who endured sociopolitical hardships abroad, Bulosan's essay spoke on behalf of those enduring the socioeconomic hardships domestically, and it thrust him into prominence.

The painting has had a wide array of adaptations, parodies, and other uses, such as for the cover for the 1946 book Norman Rockwell, Illustrator. Although the image was popular at the time in the United States and remains so, it caused resentment in Europe where the masses were enduring wartime hardship. Artistically, the work is highly regarded as an example of mastery of the challenges of white-on-white painting and as one of Rockwell's most famous works.


The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world.

Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms[1]

Freedom from Want is the third in a series of four oil paintings entitled Four Freedoms by Norman Rockwell. They were inspired by Franklin D. Roosevelt's State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941.[2] In the early 1940s, Roosevelt's Four Freedoms themes were still vague and abstract to many, but the government used them to help boost patriotism.[3] The Four Freedoms' theme was eventually incorporated into the Atlantic Charter,[4][5] and it became part of the charter of the United Nations.[2] The series of paintings ran in The Saturday Evening Post accompanied by essays from noted writers on four consecutive weeks: Freedom of Speech (February 20), Freedom of Worship (February 27), Freedom from Want (March 6), and Freedom from Fear (March 13). Eventually, the series was widely distributed in poster form and became instrumental in the U.S. Government War Bond Drive.[6]


The illustration is an oil painting on canvas, measuring 45.75 by 35.5 inches (116.2 cm × 90.2 cm). The Norman Rockwell Museum describes it as a story illustration for The Saturday Evening Post, complementary to the theme,[7] but the image is also an autonomous visual expression.[8]

The painting shows an aproned matriarch presenting a roasted turkey to a family of several generations,[9] in Rockwell's idealistic presentation of family values. The patriarch looks on with fondness and approval from the head of the table,[10] which is the central element of the painting. Its creased tablecloth shows that this is a special occasion for "sharing what we have with those we love", according to Lennie Bennett.[8] The table has a bowl of fruit, celery, pickles, and what appears to be cranberry sauce. There is a covered silver serving dish that would traditionally hold potatoes, according to Richard Halpern,[11] but Bennett describes this as a covered casserole dish.[8] The servings are less prominent than the presentation of white linen, white plates and water-filled glasses. The people in the painting are not yet eating, and the painting contrasts the empty plates and vacant space in their midst with images of overabundance.[12]


Our cook cooked it, I painted it and we ate it. That was one of the few times I've ever eaten the model.


In mid-June Rockwell sketched in charcoal the Four Freedoms and sought commission from the Office of War Information (OWI). He was rebuffed by an official who said, "The last war, you illustrators did the posters. This war, we're going to use fine arts men, real artists."[14] However, Saturday Evening Post editor Ben Hibbs recognized the potential of the set and encouraged Rockwell to produce them right away.[14] By early fall, the authors for the Four Freedoms had submitted their essays. Rockwell was concerned that Freedom from Want did not match Bulosan's text. In mid-November, Hibbs wrote Rockwell pleading that he not scrap his third work to start over. Hibbs alleviated Rockwell's thematic concern; he explained that the illustrations only needed to address the same topic rather than be in unison. Hibbs pressured Rockwell into completing his work by warning him that the magazine was on the verge of being compelled by the government to place restrictions on four-color printing, so Rockwell had better get the work published before relegation to halftone printing.[15]

In 1942, Rockwell decided to use neighbors as models for the series.[16] In Freedom from Want, he used his living room for the setting and relied on neighbors for advice, critical commentary, and their service as his models.[14] For Freedom from Want, Rockwell photographed his cook as she presented the turkey on Thanksgiving Day 1942.[13] He said that he painted the turkey on that day and that, unlike Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Worship, this painting was not difficult to execute.[17] Rockwell's wife Mary is in this painting, and the family cook, Mrs. Thaddeus Wheaton,[18] is serving the turkey, which the Rockwell family ate that day.[19] The nine adults and two children depicted were photographed in Rockwell's studio and painted into the scene later.[20][21] The models are (clockwise from Wheaton) Lester Brush, Florence Lindsey, Rockwell's mother Nancy, Jim Martin, Mr. Wheaton, Mary Rockwell, Charles Lindsey, and the Hoisington children.[13] Jim Martin appears in all four paintings in the series.[22] Shirley Hoisington, the girl at the end of the table, was six at the time.[23]

After the Four Freedoms series ran in The Saturday Evening Post, the magazine made sets of reproductions available to the public and received 25,000 orders. Additionally the OWI, which six months earlier had declined to employ Rockwell to promote the Four Freedoms, requested 2.5 million sets of posters featuring the Four Freedoms for its war-bond drive in early 1943.[24]

Rockwell bequeathed this painting to a custodianship that became the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and it is now part of the museum's permanent collection. Rockwell lived in Stockbridge from 1953 until his death in 1978.[8]


A black-and-white portrait photo of a young Norman Rockwell with his arms crossed in a light suit coat with a dark tie and white shirt
Norman Rockwell early in his career

Freedom from Want is considered one of Rockwell's finest works.[20] Of the four paintings in the Four Freedoms, it is the one most often seen in art books with critical review and commentary. Although all were intended to promote patriotism in a time of war, Freedom from Want became a symbol of "family togetherness, peace, and plenty", according to Linda Rosenkrantz, who compares it to "a 'Hallmark' Christmas".[25] Embodying nostalgia for an enduring American theme of holiday celebration,[26] the painting is not exclusively associated with Thanksgiving, and is sometimes known as I'll Be Home for Christmas.[27] The abundance and unity it shows were the idyllic hope of a post-war world, and the image has been reproduced in various formats.[25]

According to author Amy Dempsey, during the Cold War, Rockwell's images affirmed traditional American values, depicting Americans as prosperous and free.[28] Rockwell's work came to be categorized within art movements and styles such as Regionalism and American scene painting. Rockwell's work sometimes displays an idealized vision of America's rural and agricultural past.[29] Rockwell summed up his own idealism: "I paint life as I would like it to be."[30]

Despite Rockwell's general optimism, he had misgivings about having depicted such a large turkey when much of Europe was "starving, overrun [and] displaced" as World War II raged.[21][31][32] Rockwell noted that this painting was not popular in Europe:[31][32] "The Europeans sort of resented it because it wasn't freedom from want, it was overabundance, the table was so loaded down with food."[11] Outside the United States, this overabundance was the common perception.[33] However, Richard Halpern says the painting not only displays overabundance of food, but also of "family, conviviality, and security", and opines that "overabundance rather than mere sufficiency is the true answer to want." He parallels the emotional nourishment provided by the image to that of the food nourishment that it depicts, remarking that the picture is noticeably inviting. However, by depicting the table with nothing but empty plates and white dishes on white linen, Rockwell may have been invoking the Puritan origins of the Thanksgiving holiday.[11]

To art critic Robert Hughes, the painting represents the theme of family continuity, virtue, homeliness, and abundance without extravagance in a Puritan tone, as confirmed by the modest beverage choice of water.[34] Historian Lizabeth Cohen says that by depicting this freedom as a celebration in the private family home rather than a worker with a job or a government protecting the hungry and homeless, Rockwell suggests that ensuring this freedom was not as much a government responsibility as something born from participation in the mass consumer economy.[31]

One of the notable and artistically challenging elements of the image is Rockwell's use of white-on-white: white plates sitting on a white tablecloth.[8][33] Art critic Deborah Solomon describes this as "one of the most ambitious plays of white-against-white since Whistler's Symphony in White, No. 1".[35] Solomon further describes the work as "a new level of descriptive realism. Yet, the painting doesn't feel congested or fussy; it is open and airy in the center. Extensive passages of white paint nicely frame the individual faces."[35]

Jim Martin, positioned in the lower right, gives a coy and perhaps mischievous glance back at the viewer.[35] He is a microcosm of the entire scene in which no one appears to be giving thanks in a traditional manner of a Thanksgiving dinner.[35] Solomon finds it a departure from previous depictions of Thanksgiving in that the participants do not lower their heads or raise their hands in the traditional poses of prayer. She sees it as an example of treating American traditions in both sanctified and casual ways.[36] Theologian David Brown sees gratitude as implicit in the painting,[37] while Kenneth Bendiner writes that Rockwell was mindful of the Last Supper and that the painting's perspective echoes its rendition by Tintoretto.[38]


Freedom from Want was published with an essay by Carlos Bulosan as part of the Four Freedoms series. Bulosan's essay spoke on behalf of those enduring domestic socioeconomic hardships rather than sociopolitical hardships abroad, and it thrust him into prominence.[39][nb 1] As he neared his thirtieth birthday, the Philippine immigrant and labor organizer[40] Bulosan was experiencing a life that was not consistent with the theme Rockwell depicted in his version of Freedom from Want. Unknown as a writer, he was subsisting as a migrant laborer working intermittent jobs.[41] Post editors tracked down the impoverished immigrant to request an essay contribution.[42] Bulosan rose to prominence during World War II when the Commonwealth of the Philippines, a United States territory, was occupied by Japan. To many Americans, Bulosan's essay marked his introduction, and his name was thereafter well recognized.[39] The essay was lost by The Post, and Bulosan, who had no carbon copy, had to track down the only draft of the essay at a bar in Tacoma.[41]

Freedom from Want had previously been less entwined in the standard liberalism philosophies of the western world than the other three freedoms (speech, fear, and religion); this freedom added economic liberty as a societal aspiration.[43] In his essay, Bulosan treats negative liberties as positive liberties by suggesting that Americans be "given equal opportunity to serve themselves and each other according to their needs and abilities", an echo of Karl Marx's "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs".[44] In the final paragraph of the essay, the phrase "The America we hope to see is not merely a physical but also a spiritual and intellectual world" describes an egalitarian America.[44] In a voice likened to Steinbeck's in works such as The Grapes of Wrath,[41][43] Bulosan's essay spoke up for those who struggled to survive in the capitalist democracy and was regarded as "haunting and sharp" against the backdrop of Rockwell's feast of plenty. It proposed that while citizens had obligations to the state, the state had an obligation to provide a basic level of subsistence.[41] Unlike Roosevelt, Bulosan presented the case that the New Deal had not already granted freedom from want as it did not guarantee Americans the essentials of life.[40]

References in popular culture[edit]

Visual arts[edit]

Tony Bennett standing at the head of the table during a holiday meal gathering of over a dozen men as the turkey arrives.
Tony Bennett's 2008 Christmas album entitled A Swingin' Christmas (Featuring The Count Basie Big Band) parodies Freedom from Want.
  • The painting was used as the 1946 book cover for Norman Rockwell, Illustrator, written during the prime of Rockwell's career when he was regarded as America's most popular illustrator.[26] This image's iconic status has led to parody and satire.
  • MAD magazine #39 (May 1958) presented a magazine satire called "The Saturday Evening Pest",[45] which featured a parody of Freedom from Want on the cover. In the parody, the family's circumstances are far from ideal.[46]
  • New York painter Frank Moore re-created Rockwell's all-white Americans with an ethnically diverse family, as Freedom to Share (1994), in which the turkey platter brims over with health care supplies.[47]
  • Among the better known reproductions is Mickey and Minnie Mouse entertaining their cartoon family with a festive turkey. Several political cartoons have invoked this image.[33]
  • The painting was reenacted in the May 16, 2012, season 3 "Tableau Vivant" episode of the comedy television series Modern Family.[48]
  • Another imitation of the work is the cover art to Tony Bennett's 2008 Christmas album, A Swingin' Christmas (Featuring The Count Basie Big Band).[49][50] The parody includes all 13 members of Count Basie's band.[51]
  • The cover to DC Comics JSA Issue 54 was also an homage to this image with various superheroes such as Superman, Power Girl, and Wonder Woman.[52][53]
  • A promotional poster for the 2018 film, Deadpool 2 replaced the painting's characters with characters from the film.[54]


  • A snapshot at the end of the 2002 Disney animated film Lilo & Stitch shows the film's characters seated at a Thanksgiving table, echoing the painting.[55]
  • In the 2009 film The Blind Side, when the Tuohy family gathers at the Thanksgiving table, the scene is transformed into a replica of the famous painting.[56]

Explanatory footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The essay is considered one of the author's most notable works and is compared to John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.


  1. ^ "Message To Congress 1941" (PDF). Marist College. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "100 Documents That Shaped America:President Franklin Roosevelt's Annual Message (Four Freedoms) to Congress (1941)". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
  3. ^ Murray, Stuart & James McCabe (1993). Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms. Gramercy Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-517-20213-1.
  4. ^ Boyd, Kirk (2012). 2048: Humanity's Agreement to Live Together. ReadHowYouWant. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4596-2515-0. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  5. ^ Kern, Gary (2007). The Kravchenko Case: One Man's War on Stalin. Enigma Books. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-929631-73-5. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  6. ^ Ngo, Sang (February 20, 2013). "And that's the way it was: February 20, 1943". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  7. ^ "Norman Rockwell (1894–1978), "Freedom from Want," 1943. Oil on canvas, 45 ¾ x 35 ½"". Norman Rockwell Museum. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e Bennett, Lennie (November 17, 2012). "'Freedom From Want' and Norman Rockwell are about more than nostalgia". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  9. ^ Sickels, Robert C. (2004). The 1940s. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 225. ISBN 0-313-31299-0. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  10. ^ Fichner-Rathus, Lois (2012). Understanding Art (10th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 559. ISBN 978-1-111-83695-5. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c Halpern, Richard (2006). Norman Rockwell: The Underside of Innocence. University of Chicago Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-226-31440-5. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  12. ^ Halpern, Richard (2006). Norman Rockwell: The Underside of Innocence. University of Chicago Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-226-31440-5. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  13. ^ a b c Meyer, Susan E. (1981). Norman Rockwell's People. Harry N. Abrams. p. 133. ISBN 0-8109-1777-7.
  14. ^ a b c Fischer, David Hackett (2004). Liberty and Freedom: A Visual History of America's Founding Ideas. Oxford University Press. p. 556. ISBN 0-19-516253-6. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  15. ^ Claridge, Laura (2001). "21: The Big Ideas". Norman Rockwell: A Life. Random House. pp. 307–308. ISBN 0-375-50453-2.
  16. ^ "Norman Rockwell in the 1940s: A View of the American Homefront". Norman Rockwell Museum. Archived from the original on July 20, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
  17. ^ Hennessey, Maureen Hart & Anne Knutson (1999). "The Four Freedoms". Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. with High Museum of Art and Norman Rockwell Museum. p. 100. ISBN 0-8109-6392-2.
  18. ^ Henningsen, Vic (April 1, 2013). "Henningsen: The Four Freedoms". Vermont Public Radio. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  19. ^ "Honoring the American Spirit" (PDF). Norman Rockwell Museum. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  20. ^ a b Solomon, Deborah (2013). "Fifteen: The Four Freedoms (May 1942 to May 1943)". American Mirror: The Life and Art of Norman Rockwell. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-374-11309-4.
  21. ^ a b Heitman, Danny (November 27, 2013). "Thanksgiving: A look back at Norman Rockwell's iconic illustration 'Freedom From Want': Deborah Solomon's book 'American Mirror' gives a new perspective to one of Rockwell's most famous paintings". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  22. ^ "I Like To Please People". Time. June 21, 1943. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  23. ^ Murray, Stuart & James McCabe (1993). Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms. Gramercy Books. p. 50. ISBN 0-517-20213-1.
  24. ^ Heydt, Bruce (February 2006). "Norman Rockwell and the Four Freedoms". America in WWII. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  25. ^ a b Rosenkrantz, Linda (November 13, 2006). "A Norman Rockwell Thanksgiving". Canton Repository. The Repository. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  26. ^ a b Guptill, Arthur L. (1972). Norman Rockwell, Illustrator (seventh ed.). Watson-Guptill Publications. pp. cover, vi, 140–149.
  27. ^ Daniels, Robert L. (December 16, 2008). "Review: 'Tony Bennett'". Variety. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  28. ^ Dempsey, Amy (2002). "1918–1945: American Scene". Art in the Modern Era. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 165. ISBN 0-8109-4172-4. During the Cold War, Rockwell's images of domestic America—solid, dependable, prosperous and, above all, free—gave a whole generation of Americans an immensely appealing and persuasive view of their traditional values.
  29. ^ Dempsey, Amy (2002). "1918–1945: American Scene". Art in the Modern Era. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 165. ISBN 0-8109-4172-4. Two defining events of the 1930s, the Great Depression and the rise of Fascism in Europe, prompted many American artists to turn away from abstraction and to adopt realistic styles of painting. For Regionalists (see *American Scene), this meant the promotion of an idealized, often chauvinistic vision of America's agrarian past.
  30. ^ Wright, Tricia (2007). "The Depression and World War II". American Art and Artists. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-06-089124-4.
  31. ^ a b c Borgwardt, Elizabeth (2007). A New Deal For The World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-28192-9. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  32. ^ a b Albisa, Catherine; Martha F. Davis; Cynthia Soohoo, eds. (2007). Bringing Human Rights Home: Portraits of the movement. Praeger Perspectives. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-275-98821-0. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  33. ^ a b c Hennessey, Maureen Hart; Knutson, Anne (1999). "The Four Freedoms". Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. with High Museum of Art and Norman Rockwell Museum. p. 102. ISBN 0-8109-6392-2.
  34. ^ Hughes, Robert (1997). "The Empire of Signs". American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. [1]. ISBN 0-679-42627-2.
  35. ^ a b c d Solomon, Deborah (2013). "Fifteen: The Four Freedoms (May 1942 to May 1943)". American Mirror: The Life and Art of Norman Rockwell. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-374-11309-4.
  36. ^ Solomon, Deborah (October 2013). "Inside America's Great Romance With Norman Rockwell". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  37. ^ Brown, David (February 3, 2011). God and Grace of Body: Sacrament in Ordinary. Oxford University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-19-959996-7. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  38. ^ Bendiner, Kenneth (2004). Food in Painting: From the Renaissance to the Present. Reaktion Books. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-86189-213-3. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  39. ^ a b Espiritu, Augusto Fauni (2005). Five Faces of Exile: The Nation and Filipino American Intellectuals. Stanford University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-8047-5121-8. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  40. ^ a b Westbrook, Robert B. (1993). "Fighting for the American Family". In Fox, Richard Wightman and T. J. Jackson Lears (ed.). The Power of Culture: Critical Essays in American History. University of Chicago Press. p. 204. ISBN 0-226-25955-2. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
  41. ^ a b c d Saldívar, Ramón David (2006). The Borderlands of Culture: Américo Paredes and the Transnational Imaginary. Duke University Press Books. p. 211. ISBN 0-8223-3789-4. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
  42. ^ Murray, Stuart & James McCabe (1993). Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms. Gramercy Books. p. 62. ISBN 0-517-20213-1.
  43. ^ a b Vials, Chris (2009). Realism for the Masses: Aesthetics, Popular Front Pluralism, and U.S. Culture, 1935–1947. University Press of Mississippi. p. XXI. ISBN 978-1-60473-123-1. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
  44. ^ a b Steiner, Michael C. (2013). Regionalists on the Left: Radical Voices from the American West. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-8061-4340-8. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  45. ^ "MAD Magazine #39 • USA • 1st Edition - New York". MAD Trash. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  46. ^ McGowan, Bob (July 26, 2017). "The Art of the Post: The Post's Rockwell and MAD's Drucker: Two Great American Artists". The Saturday Evening Post. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  47. ^ Green, Penelope (October 28, 2001). "Mirror, Mirror; Rockwell, Irony-Free". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
  48. ^ Winn, Steven (November 4, 2012). "Norman Rockwell revival at Crocker". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  49. ^ "Tony Bennett: A Swingin' Christmas". AllMusic. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  50. ^ Edgar, Sean (December 16, 2008). "Tony Bennett featuring the Count Basie Big Band: A Swingin' Christmas". Paste. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  51. ^ Loudon, Christopher (December 2008). "Tony Bennett: That Holiday Feeling". JazzTimes. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  52. ^ "GCD :: Issue :: JSA #54". www.comics.org. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  53. ^ "JSA Issue 54 Cover by Pacheco and Merino - Virtue, Vice and Pumpkin Pie, in Malvin V's DC Universe Original Art Pages Comic Art Gallery Room". www.comicartfans.com. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  54. ^ "Deadpool 2 new promotional poster". collider.com. October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  55. ^ Neighbors, R.C.; Rankin, Sandy (July 27, 2011). The Galaxy Is Rated G: Essays on Children's Science Fiction Film and Television. McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7864-8801-8.
  56. ^ "Michael Oher Tells A Whole Different Story About 'The Blind Side'". icepop.com. August 9, 2017. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.

External links[edit]