Freekeh

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This article is about the Middle Eastern dish. For the village in northern Syria, see Farikah.
Freekeh
Freekeh with roasted vegetables.jpg
Course Main
Place of origin Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Israel and Syria
Region or state Jordan, Palestine, Egypt , Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Iraq
Main ingredients Green wheat
Cookbook: Freekeh  Media: Freekeh

Freekeh (sometimes spelled frikeh) or farik (Arabic: فريكة‎ / ALA-LC: farīkah) (pronounced free-kah) is a cereal food made from green wheat that goes through a roasting process. It is an ancient Arabian dish that is especially popular in Levantine, Arabian Peninsulan, Jordanian and Egyptian cuisine, but also in North African and other neighboring cuisines.[1][2]

The wheat is harvested while the grains are yellow and the seeds are still soft; it is then piled and sun-dried. The piles are carefully set on fire so only the straw and chaff burn and not the seeds. The high moisture content of the seeds prevents them from burning. The now roasted wheat undergoes further threshing and sun-drying to make the flavor, texture, and color uniform. This threshing or rubbing process of the grains gives this food its name, farīk or “rubbed”. The seeds are then cracked into smaller pieces so they look like a green bulgur.[1]

History[edit]

Freekeh is mentioned in an early 13th-century Baghdad cook book as farīkiyya.[1] In that recipe, meat is fried in oil and braised with water, salt, and cinnamon bark. Then, dried coriander is stirred in with young wheat ("freekeh") and is cooked. Finally, the meal is served with cumin, cinnamon, and fresh lamb tail fat.[1]

In Egypt, freekeh is served as ḥamām bi’l-farīk (pigeon stuffed with green wheat). Freekeh is also prepared in Egypt with onion and tomato, and sometimes with chicken. Shūrbat farīk bi’l-mukh is a freekeh and bone marrow soup from Tunisia. Freeket lahma, a green wheat pilaf dish with roasted lamb, spring peas, and pine nuts, comes from Jordan, and shūrba al-farīk is a Jordanian cuisine soup with green wheat and chicken.[1]

In Syria, freekeh is usually prepared with lamb, onion, butter, almonds, black pepper, cinnamon, cumin, and salt. In Israel, it is eaten in some region as part of a Hamin stew along with chicken, tomatoes, potatoes, red chili peppers and beans.[citation needed] In Jordan (Druze in Jordan), Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine, traditional Druze populations still make freekeh in the old ways.

Nutritional value[edit]

Freekeh (green durum wheat)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,418 kJ (339 kcal)
71 g
2.5 g
14 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(37%)
0.42 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(10%)
0.12 mg
Niacin (B3)
(45%)
6.7 mg
(19%)
0.94 mg
Vitamin B6
(32%)
0.42 mg
Folate (B9)
(11%)
43 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(3%)
34 mg
Iron
(27%)
3.5 mg
Magnesium
(41%)
144 mg
Manganese
(143%)
3.0 mg
Phosphorus
(73%)
508 mg
Potassium
(9%)
431 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(44%)
4.2 mg
Other constituents
selenium 89 ug
water 11 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Freekeh's nutritional attributes are comparable to other cereal grains, especially durum wheat from which it is derived, depending on the durum cultivar.[1][3] Durum is notable for its high contents (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially manganese (143% DV) (table). Before roasting, freekeh is 11% water, 71% carbohydrates, 2.5% fat and 14% protein (table).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Freekeh - Farik - Green Wheat Clifford A. Wright.
  2. ^ Anissa Helou, "Freekeh", in Alan Davidson, ed., The Oxford Companion to Food
  3. ^ Velland E (14 July 2015). "Grilled Halloumi and Freekeh Salad". The Globe and Mail, Food and Wine, Toronto. 

External links[edit]