French Maastricht Treaty referendum, 1992

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Results by departament (including overseas of Guadeloupe, Martinique, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, French Guiana, Réunion and Mayotte)
  Yes
  No

A referendum on the Maastricht Treaty was held in France on 20 September 1992.[1] It was approved by only 51% of the voters. The result of the referendum, known as the "petit oui", along with the Danish "No" vote are considered to be signals of the end of the "permissive consensus" on European integration which had existed in most of continental Europe until then. From this point forward issues relating to European integration were subject to much greater scrutiny across much of Europe, and overt euroscepticism gained prominence.[2] Only France, Ireland and Denmark held referendums on Maastricht ratification.

Opponents included the French Communist Party (PCF) and far-left parties such as the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) or Workers' Struggle (LO), who opposed what they considered as an advance of neo-liberalism, as well as Euro-sceptics such as the far-right National Front and Philippe de Villiers. Those who opposed the ratification included the demographer Emmanuel Todd. Opponents to the treaty were also in the main right-wing party, the Rally for the Republic, which has experienced from 1992 to great divisions between the souverainists (Philippe Séguin, Charles Pasqua ...), and pro-Europeans.

Results[edit]

Choice Metropolitan France Total
Votes % Votes %
For 12,957,324 50.8 13,162,992 51.0
Against 12,542,635 49.2 12,623,582 49.0
Invalid/blank votes 880,783 909,377
Total 26,380,742 100 26,695,951 100
Registered voters/turnout 37,087,104 71.1 38,305,534 69.7
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

By departament[edit]

Region For Against Electorate Votes Valid votes Invalid votes
Paris 461,435 276,684 1,104,904 752,945 738,119 14,826
Seine-et-Marne 215,408 225,813 639,006 452,808 441,221 11,587
Yvelines 321,932 239,186 784,033 573,159 561,118 12,041
Essonne 248,708 207,831 646,038 468,088 456,539 11,549
Hauts-de-Seine 305,862 233,911 786,433 551,610 539,773 11,837
Seine-Saint-Denis 195,190 232,288 668,049 438,695 427,478 11,217
Val-de Marne 232,655 221,938 669,725 465,636 454,593 11,043
Val-de Oise 205,522 193,243 578,196 408,431 398,765 9,666
Ardennes 63,221 64,825 190,636 132,190 128,046 4,144
Aube 57,009 72,340 187,946 133,700 129,349 4,351
Marne 117,001 111,766 354,255 235,534 228,767 6,767
Haute-Marne 46,968 51,310 145,827 101,890 98,278 3,612
Aisne 112,218 146,948 366,176 267,327 259,166 8,161
Oise 147,359 185,988 460,412 342,826 333,347 9,479
Somme 114,959 165,007 382,372 289,143 279,966 9,177
Eure 105,984 139,016 340,222 252,271 245,000 7,271
Seine-Maritime 255,606 304,597 804,903 579,069 560,203 18,866
Cher 66,327 87,160 224,543 159,793 153,487 6,306
Eure-et-Loir 84,982 101,161 260,179 192,238 186,143 6,095
Indre 55,318 69,968 178,558 131,592 125,286 6,306
Indre-et-Loire 118,876 127,497 352,403 255,339 246,373 8,966
Loir-et-Cher 71,879 86,902 219,506 165,362 158,781 6,581
Loiret 127,627 141,132 372,594 278,387 268,759 9,628
Calvados 146,454 146,938 420,624 301,987 293,392 8,595
Manche 114,956 125,606 340,972 248,699 240,562 8,137
Orne 72,445 77,249 209,401 155,201 149,694 5,507
Côte-d'Or 104,510 110,492 313,432 221,372 215,002 6,370
Nièvre 58,524 60,671 173,634 123,760 119,195 4,565
Saône-et-Loire 128,134 124,614 391,991 264,890 252,748 12,142
Yonne 70,524 84,992 221,876 160,563 155,516 5,047
Nord 519,195 613,949 1,640,563 1,175,412 1,133,144 42,268
Pas-de-Calais 296,221 411,838 998,937 737,659 708,059 29,600
Meurthe-et-Moselle 167,761 138,331 463,533 315,383 306,092 9,291
Meuse 50,983 44,940 139,529 99,341 95,923 3,418
Moselle 254,719 191,014 679,500 460,121 445,733 14,388
Vosges 90,450 97,799 274,683 196,843 188,249 8,594
Bas-Rhin 290,786 133,148 624,637 437,305 423,934 13,371
Haut-Rhin 186,958 117,603 443,172 314,621 304,561 10,060
Doubs 115,991 102,579 311,004 225,642 218,570 7,072
Jura 63,242 58,483 173,072 126,614 121,725 4,889
Haute-Saône 53,469 63,796 166,854 122,218 117,265 4,953
Territoire de Belfort 26,966 31,391 85,552 60,615 58,357 2,258
Loire-Atlantique 281,704 214,036 725,314 513,628 495,740 17,888
Maine-et-Loire 182,420 144,934 472,178 343,259 327,354 15,905
Mayenne 74,138 66,651 200,733 148,817 140,789 8,028
Sarthe 122,176 126,247 367,876 260,195 248,423 11,772
Vendée 133,497 135,099 377,547 282,340 268,596 13,744
Côtes-d'Armor 176,140 116,467 414,780 304,556 292,607 11,949
Finistère 254,910 173,951 615,753 442,893 428,861 14,032
Ille-et-Vilaine 237,588 140,987 552,921 394,185 378,575 15,610
Morbihan 179,253 137,045 453,406 329,455 316,298 13,157
Charente 85,714 85,698 249,912 178,676 171,412 7,264
Charente Maritime 125,376 133,445 381,953 267,897 258,821 9,076
Deux-Sèvres 92,780 81,924 253,269 183,983 174,704 9,279
Vienne 94,987 94,561 271,606 198,334 189,548 8,786
Dordogne 94,168 124,708 301,258 228,258 218,876 9,382
Gironde 270,255 280,025 782,205 565,450 550,280 15,170
Landes 89,763 78,226 237,683 174,798 167,989 6,809
Lot-et-Garonne 73,673 84,910 222,311 165,231 158,583 6,648
Pyrénées-Atlantiques 153,841 134,141 419,228 298,343 287,982 10,361
Ariège 37,057 36,583 107,131 76,649 73,640 3,009
Aveyron 82,594 64,738 212,082 156,762 147,332 9,430
Haute-Garonne 227,375 195,238 609,195 437,702 422,613 15,089
Gers 47,857 48,630 136,741 100,931 96,487 4,444
Lot 46,309 41,780 122,197 92,554 88,089 4,465
Hautes-Pyrénées 60,651 57,431 171,127 122,529 118,082 4,447
Tarn 87,319 91,835 253,595 189,039 179,154 9,885
Tarn-et-Garonne 47,490 59,056 147,460 111,219 106,546 4,673
Corrèze 59,893 70,930 183,878 136,655 130,823 5,832
Creuse 30,272 39,606 107,930 73,213 69,878 3,335
Haute-Vienne 87,879 93,437 259,854 191,315 181,316 9,999
Ain 108,769 89,417 293,087 205,091 198,186 6,905
Ardèche 71,622 68,900 205,086 146,872 140,522 6,350
Drôme 95,209 96,973 280,400 199,622 192,182 7,440
Isère 237,376 189,228 632,403 440,404 426,604 13,800
Loire 159,246 145,757 474,077 318,052 305,003 13,049
Rhône 325,360 256,619 859,959 598,577 581,979 16,598
Savoie 85,503 71,910 236,577 162,260 157,413 4,847
Haute-Savoie 138,902 104,586 353,759 250,223 243,488 6,735
Allier 77,929 98,200 261,895 184,234 176,129 8,105
Cantal 37,632 44,369 125,253 85,453 82,001 3,452
Haute-Loire 56,454 49,042 157,437 112,172 105,496 6,676
Puy-de-Dôme 141,917 130,477 402,955 284,781 272,394 12,387
Aude 72,418 83,233 220,278 160,959 155,651 5,308
Gard 124,902 153,751 398,507 287,721 278,653 9,068
Hérault 174,771 195,013 535,358 380,512 369,784 10,728
Lozère 21,495 18,082 56,782 41,400 39,577 1,823
Pyrénées-Orientales 77,683 94,071 259,333 176,935 171,754 5,181
Alpes-de Haute-Provence 33,718 35,956 99,506 72,360 69,674 2,686
Haute Alpes 30,622 26,211 84,354 59,166 56,833 2,333
Alpes-Maritimes 192,495 229,531 655,429 430,516 422,026 8,490
Bouches-du-Rôhne 320,831 397,387 1,072,354 735,772 718,218 17,554
Var 161,893 219,722 560,396 390,252 381,615 8,637
Vaucluse 94,871 124,907 309,337 226,725 219,778 6,947
Corse-du-Sud 16,825 21,568 71,011 39,183 38,393 790
Haute-Corse 19,925 26,397 86,185 47,469 46,322 1,147
Guadeloupe 21,630 10,435 225,416 37,556 32,065 5,491
Martinique 30,709 11,865 227,013 55,471 42,574 12,897
French Guyana 3,901 1,890 33,928 6,368 5,791 577
Réunion 61,609 21,380 322,466 88,482 82,989 5,493
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 215 120 4,197 402 335 67
Mayotte 1,173 362 28,246 1,618 1,535 83
Wallis and Futuna 2,924 896 7,058 3,839 3,820 19
French Polynesia 14,879 6,252 106,724 22,594 21,131 1,463
New Caledonia 14,783 14,966 92,619 31,247 29,749 1,498
Source: European Election Database

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p674 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Harmsen, Robert and Menno Spiering, eds. Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration. Amsterdam: Radopi B.V., 2004. p. 25.