Ministry of Culture (France)
The Ministry of Culture (French: Ministère de la Culture) is, in the Government of France, in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional "maisons de culture" (culture centres). The Ministry of Culture is also charged with maintaining the French identity.
It is headed by the Minister of Culture, a cabinet member.
Deriving from the Italian and Burgundian courts of the Renaissance, the notion that the state had a key role to play in the sponsoring of artistic production and that the arts were linked to national prestige was found in France from at least the 16th century on. During the pre-revolutionary period, these ideas are apparent in such things as the creation of the Académie française, the Académie de peinture et de sculpture and other state-sponsored institutions of artistic production, and through the cultural policies of Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
The modern post of Minister of Culture was created by Charles de Gaulle in 1959 and the first Minister was the writer André Malraux. Malraux was responsible for realizing the goals of the "droit à la culture" ("the right to culture") -- an idea which had been incorporated in the French constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) -- by democratizing access to culture, while also achieving the Gaullist aim of elevating the "grandeur" ("greatness") of post-war France. To this end, he created numerous regional cultural centres throughout France and actively sponsored the arts. Malraux's artistic tastes included the modern arts and the avant-garde, but on the whole he remained conservative.
Under president François Mitterrand the Minister of Culture was Jack Lang who showed himself to be far more open to popular cultural production, including jazz, rock and roll, rap music, graffiti art ("tagging"), cartoons, comic books, fashion and food. His famous phrase "économie et culture, même combat" ("economy and culture: it's the same fight") is representative of his commitment to cultural democracy and to active national sponsorship and participation in cultural production. In addition to the creation of the Fête de la Musique and overseeing the French bicentennial (1989), he was in charge of the massive architectural program of the Mitterrand years (the so-called "Grands Travaux" or "Great Works" like the Bibliothèque nationale, the new Louvre, the Institut du Monde Arabe, the Musée d'Orsay, the Opéra-Bastille, the "Grande Arche" of La Défense (the Parisian business quarter) and the City of Science and Music in La Villette).
The Ministry of Jacques Toubon was notable for a number of laws (the "Toubon Laws") enacted for the preservation of the French language, both in advertisements (all ads must include a French translation of foreign words) and on the radio (80% of songs on French radio stations must be in French), ostensibly in reaction to the presence of English.
The current minister is, since the 11th of February 2016, Audrey Azoulay.
Ministers of Culture
- February 1959 André Malraux
- June 1969 Edmond Michelet
- October 1970 André Bettencourt
- January 1971 Jacques Duhamel
- April 1973 Maurice Druon
- March 1974 Alain Peyrefitte
- June 1974 Michel Guy
- August 1976 Françoise Giroud
- March 1977 Michel d'Ornano
- April 1978 Jean-Philippe Lecat
- March 1981 Michel d'Ornano
- May 1981 Jack Lang
- March 1986 François Léotard
- May 1988 Jack Lang
- June 1988 Jack Lang
- May 1991 Jack Lang
- April 1992 Jack Lang
- March 1993 Jacques Toubon
- May 1995 Philippe Douste-Blazy
- June 1997 Catherine Trautmann
- March 2000 Catherine Tasca
- May 2002 Jean-Jacques Aillagon
- March 2004 Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres
- May 2007 Christine Albanel
- June 2009 Frédéric Mitterrand
- May 2012 Aurélie Filippetti
- August 2014 Fleur Pellerin
- February 2016 Audrey Azoulay
For a complete list see .
Names of the Ministry of Culture
Since the French constitution does not identify specific ministers (merely speaking of "the minister in charge of" this or that), each government may label each ministry as they wish, or even have a broader ministry in charge of several governmental sectors. Hence, the ministry has gone through a number of different names:
The Ministry of Culture is made up of a variety of internal divisions, including:
- Direction de l'administration générale (DAG)
- Direction de l'architecture et du patrimoine (DAPA) - in charge of national monuments and heritage.
- Direction des archives de France (DAF) - in charge of the National Archives
- Direction du livre et de la lecture (DLL) - in charge of French literature and the book trade
- Direction de la musique, de la danse, du théâtre et des spectacles (DMDTS) - in charge of music, dance and theater
- Direction des Musées de France (DMF) - in charge of the National museums
The Ministry also has access to the division :
- Direction du développement des médias (DDM) in charge of developing and expanding the French media (although French public television is run through the public-service company France Télévisions).
The Ministry also runs three "delegations" (administrative boards) :
- Délégation aux arts plastiques (DAP) - in charge of the visual and sculptural arts.
- Délégation au développement et aux affaires internationales (DDAI) - in charge of international affairs and French art
- Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France (DGLFLF) - in charge of the French language and languages of France.
For more on the organization of the Ministry, see Ministry of Culture.
On the national level, the Ministry also runs:
- Regional Cultural Affairs (Direction régionale des affaires culturelles - DRAC)
- Départemental Architecture and Monuments (Services départementaux de l'architecture et du patrimoine - SDAP)
- Départemental Archives under the direction of the Conseil Général of each département.
- Centre National de la Danse, institution for the study and preservation of dance 
The Ministry of Culture is responsible for, or a major sponsor of, a number of annual cultural activities, including:
- Fête de la Musique
- Avignon theater festival
- Joconde, a huge online database of objects in French museums.
- Base Mérimée, a database of listed heritage monuments.
- Maître d'art program
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- Nancy Marmer, "The New Culture: France '82," Art in America, December 1982, pp. 115–123, 181-189.
- Accueil. French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved on 7 May 2016. "3, rue de Valois 75001 Paris"
- "Domaine national du Palais-Royal (ancien Palais Cardinal), comprenant Conseil d'Etat, Conseil Constitutionnel, Ministère de la Culture, théâtre de la Comédie Française." French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved on 7 May 2016. "place du Palais-Royal ; 1 à 7 rue de Valois ; 2 à 8 rue de Montpensier ; place Colette"