French North Africa

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French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France and centering on French Algeria. At its height, it was a large part of the Maghreb.

The origins of French North Africa lay in the decline of the Ottoman Empire. In 1830, the French captured Algiers; and, from 1848 until independence in 1962, Algeria was treated as an integral part of France.[1] Seeking to expand their influence beyond Algeria, the French established protectorates to the east and west of it. The French protectorate of Tunisia was established in 1881, following a military invasion,[2] the French protectorate in Morocco in 1912. These lasted until 1955, in the case of Morocco, and 1956, when full Tunisian independence arrived.

Until its independence, French Algeria had been a part of metropolitan France (i.e, not an overseas territory), since before World War I.[citation needed]

French North Africa came to an end soon after the Évian Accords of March 1962, which led to the Algerian independence referendum of July 1962.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 6 (1985), p. 159
  2. ^ William E. Watson, Tricolor and Crescent: France and the Islamic World (2003), p. 28
  3. ^ Serge Berstein, The Republic of de Gaulle 1958-1969 (1993), p. 54

Further reading[edit]

  • Edwards, Albert, Sketches of French North Africa (2009)
  • Gottmann, Jean, Economic problems of French North Africa (1943)*Liebesny, Herbert J., The Government of French North Africa (1943)
  • Thomas, Martin, French Empire Between the Wars (2005)
  • Wallerstein, Immanuel M., Africa: The Politics of Independence and Unity (1961)