French language in Lebanon
The French language in Lebanon is the second language of the country, with about 45% of the population being Francophone. A law determines the cases in which the French language is to be used within government, and is often used as a prestige language for business, diplomacy and education.
The use of the French language is a legacy of the time of the French Crusades and France's colonialism in the region, including its League of Nations mandate over Lebanon following World War I; as of 2004, some 20% of the population used French on a daily basis.
Role and purpose
Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that
The majority of Lebanese people speak Lebanese Arabic, which is grouped in a larger category called Levantine Arabic, while Modern Standard Arabic is mostly used in magazines, newspapers, and formal broadcast media. Code-switching between Arabic and French is very common.
Almost 40% of Lebanese are considered francophone, and another 15% "partial francophone," and 70% of Lebanon's secondary schools use French as a second language of instruction. By comparison, English is used as a secondary language in 30% of Lebanon's secondary schools. The use of Arabic by Lebanon's educated youth is declining, as they usually prefer to speak in French and, to a lesser extent, English. It is also a reaction to the negativity associated with Arabic since the September 11 attacks.
Attitudes toward French
French and English are secondary languages of Lebanon, with about 40%-45% of the population being Francophone as a second language and 30% Anglophone. In addition to the 40%-45% of Lebanese being considered francophone, there are another 15% who are considered "partial francophone", and 70% of Lebanon's secondary schools use French as a second language of instruction. The use of English is growing in the business and media environment. Out of about 900,000 students, about 500,000 are enrolled in Francophone schools, public or private, in which the teaching of mathematics and scientific subjects is provided in French. Actual usage of French varies depending on the region and social status. One third of high school students educated in French go on to pursue higher education in English-speaking institutions. English is the language of business and communication, with French being an element of social distinction, chosen for its emotional value. In 1997, the Lebanese government committed to a policy of trilingualism in education, including French and English alongside the official Arabic language in the curriculum. L'Orient-Le Jour is a French-language newspaper.
- English language in Lebanon
- France–Lebanon relations
- Geographical distribution of French speakers
- French people in Lebanon
- French language
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- (in French) L'Orient-Le Jour About Us, Lorient Le Jour