French people in Madagascar

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French people in Madagascar
Total population
123,954 (0.618% of total population)
Regions with significant populations
Antananarivo, Toamasina, Mahajanga, Antsiranana
Languages
French, Malagasy, Betsimisaraka
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Franco-Mauritian, Franco-Seychellois, White African

There is a small but recognizable community of French people in Madagascar, of whom the vast majority are born in Madagascar and are descended from former settlers and colonists from France who settled in Madagascar during the 19th and 20th centuries.[1] They constitute a minority ethnic group of Madagascar.

History[edit]

Several early attempts were made by French settlers to colonize portions of the island, to little lasting effect. The French established a greater foothold in Madagascar in the 1840s, when the French established a protectorate over the northwest part of Madagascar following intense negotiations with the Sakalava. By 1894, the entire island of Madagascar was under French rule and in 1896, it was declared a French colony. Many French settlers and colonists then settled in Madagascar, mostly as farmers or political figures. This soon led to financial, political influence and dominance of the colony.[2]

The small French community of settlers continued to dominate and held the majority of the colony's early wealth. However, in 1914, French authorities allowed the government to provide the Malagasy people with their first representative figure and voice in the political sector, despite much uproar and controversy among the French in Madagascar at the time.[3]

French economic aspirations at the time were strained by external and internal forces, particularly the fluctuating economy. The French struggled in many labor sectors. The labor demands from the Malagasy conflicted with labor requirements for Europeans. In 1926, the French were granted access to a government scheme, SMOTIG, a public works scheme.

Another setback to French settlers at the time was the climate. French farmers particularly faced the brunt of this. Several cyclones destroyed crops, placing affected French farmers in much financial trouble.

During the depression of the 1930s, the colonial administration favored coffee over cash crops. From 1932, European farmers had access to 21 Agricultural Credit associations containing several thousand members.[4]

In 1947 and 1948, the French colonial administration came under siege from the Democratic Movement for Malasy Reform (MDRM), as rebel bands attacked French colonial administration buildings and properties. This developed into a war, killing 550 French people. Several thousand of the French people in Madagascar at the time emigrated to France fear of their safety.

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s during Madagascar's transition to an independent nation, the majority of the French population emigrated, primarily to France, as increased oppression weighed down heavily on the French population at the time. In the early 1970s, no more than 105,000 French people remained in Madagascar. This number levelled off and now the French population in Madagascar numbers approximately 124,000, of which 18,000 are French born.[5][6]

Society[edit]

Religious affiliation[edit]

87% of the French population in Madagascar are Christian adherents. The vast majority of French Christian adherents in Madagascar are Roman Catholic. A small number are Protestant. The remainder of French people residing in Madagascar are mostly non-religious, but a small minority are Jews.

Language[edit]

The majority of the French population in Madagascar speak French as their first language. However, some also speak various local languages, such as Malagasy, or dialects such as Plateau Malagasy and Betsimisaraka Malagasy.[1]

Education[edit]

Preschool (maternelle) through senior high school (lycée):

Preschool (maternelle) through junior high school (collège):

Junior high school (collège):

Preschool (maternelle) through primary school (primaire):

Former schools:

  • École française du lac Alaotra in Ambatondrazaka – Preschool to primary school[24]
  • École de l'Alliance in Morondava – Preschool to primary school[25]
  • École de la Francophonie in Anantanarivo, preschool through primary school[26]
  • École Sully in Anantanrivo, preschool through primary school[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ethnologue, 'Languages of Madagascar', http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MG, Accessed: 28 July 2009
  2. ^ Country Studies US, 'Colonial Era, 1894–1960', http://countrystudies.us/madagascar/3.htm, Accessed: 27 July 2009
  3. ^ Country Studies US, 'Colonial Era, 1894–1960', http://countrystudies.us/madagascar/3.htm, Accessed: 27 July 2009
  4. ^ Country Studies US, 'Colonial Era, 1894–1960', http://countrystudies.us/madagascar/3.htm, Accessed: 27 July 2009
  5. ^ Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History, CRC Press, 2005, pp. 878–883
  6. ^ Country Studies US, 'Minorities', http://countrystudies.us/madagascar/15.htm, Accessed: 27 July 2009
  7. ^ "École de l'Alliance française d'Antsahabe." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  8. ^ "Lycée Peter Pan." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Collège français Jules-Verne." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Lycée français Sadi-Carnot." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Lycée français Sadi Carnot." AEFE. 15 October 2005. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  12. ^ "Collège français René-Cassin." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  13. ^ "Collège français Françoise-Dolto." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  14. ^ "Collège Étienne-de-Flacourt." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  15. ^ "École La Clairefontaine." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  16. ^ "Home." Lycée La Clairefontaine (main). Retrieved on 6 July 2018.
  17. ^ "École Bird." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  18. ^ "École primaire française Charles-Baudelaire." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  19. ^ "École primaire française d'Antalaha." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  20. ^ "École primaire française de Fort-Dauphin." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  21. ^ "École primaire française Les Pangalanes." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  22. ^ "École primaire française de Mananjary." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  23. ^ "École primaire française Lamartine." AEFE. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  24. ^ "Ecole française du lac Alaotra." AEFE. 26 January 2015. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  25. ^ "École de l'Alliance." AEFE. 26 January 2015. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  26. ^ "École de la Francophonie." AEFE. 12 April 2015. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.
  27. ^ "École Sully." AEFE. 15 October 2005. Retrieved on 5 July 2018.

External links[edit]