List of intelligence agencies of France
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This is a list of current and former French intelligence agencies.
- DGSE: Directorate-General for External Security – Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure. It is the military foreign intelligence agency, which succeeded the Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE) in 1982 (itself preceded by the Direction Générale des Études et Recherches (DGER), dependent on the BCRA.
- DGSI: General Directorate for Internal Security – Direction générale de la sécurité intérieure. Founded in 2008 by the merger of the RG and the DST, it is tasked with counter-espionage, counter-terrorism and the surveillance of potential threats on French territory.
- DRM: Directorate of Military Intelligence – Direction du renseignement militaire. It was created by Socialist Interior Minister Pierre Joxe in 1992, after the Gulf War, to centralize military intelligence information.
- DPSD: Directorate for Defense Protection and Security – Direction de la protection et de la sécurité de la défense. It is a military intelligence agency, charged with conducting counter-espionage.
- BRGE: Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Brigade – Brigade de renseignement et de guerre électronique.
- DCPJ: Judicial Police – Direction centrale de la police judiciaire.
- CNCIS: National Commission for the Control of Security Interceptions – Commission nationale de contrôle des interceptions de sécurité.
- SCRT: Central Service of Territorial Surveillance - Service central de surveillance du territoire
- BCRP : [bureau central de renseignement pénitentiaire= . It's a French intelligenge agency for carceral security (riot prevention, surveillance of radicalized prisonners for avoid others radicalization, etc...)
- Bureau Central de Renseignements et d'Action (BCRA) was an intelligence agency created during World War II in 1940.
- Deuxième Bureau: France's external military intelligence agency from 1871 to 1940. It was dissolved together with the Third Republic upon the armistice with Germany.
- DST: Directorate of Territorial Security – Direction de la surveillance du territoire. It was an intelligence agency of the Minister of Interior, charged with conducting counter-espionage (in particular in economic matters), and, since the end of the Cold War, also with counterterrorism issues. It was abolished in 2008 and merged into the DCRI.
- RG: General Intelligence Directorate – Direction centrale des renseignements généraux. It was the intelligence agency of the French police, directed by the Minister of the Interior. It was charged with overlooking gambling activities, criminal activities, and political radicals (far right and far left). It also used to have as a mission to oversee French political parties, but officially is not charged with this anymore. It was merged into the Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur in 2008.
- Service de documentation extérieure et de contre-espionnage (SDECE)), successor to BCRA.
- Alexander, Martin S. "Did the Deuxième Bureau work? The role of intelligence in french defence policy and strategy, 1919–39." Intelligence and National Security 6.2 (1991): 293-333.
- Andrew, Christopher. The Secret World: A History of Intelligence (2018)pp 902–914.
- Andrew, Christopher. "France and the German Menace." in Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment Before the Two World Wars edited by Ernest R. May. (1984).
- Armes, Keith. "French Intelligence on the Russian Army on the Eve of the First World War." Journal of Military History 82.3 (2018).
- Bauer, Deborah Susan. Marianne is Watching: Knowledge, Secrecy, Intelligence and the Origins of the French Surveillance State (1870-1914). (PhD Dissertation, UCLA, 2013.) Online Bibliography pp 536–59
- Chopin, Olivier. "Intelligence reform and the transformation of the state: the end of a French exception." Journal of Strategic Studies 40.4 (2017): 532-553.
- Deacon, Richard. The French Secret Service (1990).
- Forcade, Olivier. La République secrète: histoire des services spéciaux français de 1918 à 1939. (Paris: Nouveau monde, 2008).
- Hayez, Philippe. "'Renseignement': The new French intelligence policy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23.3 (2010): 474-486.
- Jackson, Peter. "French Military Intelligence responds to the German Remilitarisation of the Rhineland, 1936-A look at French intelligence machinery in 1936." Intelligence and National Security 22.4 (2007): 546-562.
- Jackson, Peter. France and the Nazi Menace: Intelligence and Policy Making, 1933-1939 (2000).
- Keiger, John. France and the World since 1870 (2001) ch 4: "French Intelligence" pp 80-109.
- Parry, D. L. L. "Clemenceau, Caillaux and the Political Use of Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 9#3 (1994): 472-494.
- Porch, Douglas. The French Secret Services: A History of French Intelligence from the Drefus Affair to the Gulf War (Macmillan, 2003).
- Warner, Michael. The Rise and Fall of Intelligence: An International Security History (2014)