The parasites undergo sexual reproduction in the gut of the definitive host - a bird of prey. They form cysts and are then eaten by a small rodent. Within the gut of the rodent the parasites decyst. They invade the intestinal wall and are carried to the liver. They undergo schizogony in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. They then invade the nervous tissue of the rodent host forming cytic structures. The infected rodent is then eaten by a bird when the tissue cysts are digested releasing the parasites. The parasites invade the enterocytes, undergo merogony and gametogony. Gametes are formed which then fuse forming a zygote that undergoes encystation.
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