Freshwater crocodile

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Freshwater crocodile
Crocodylus johnstoni.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Crocodylidae
Subfamily: Crocodylinae
Genus: Crocodylus
Species: C. johnstoni
Binomial name
Crocodylus johnstoni
Krefft, 1873[2]
Crocodylus johnstoni range.png
Range of the freshwater crocodile in black
Synonyms[3][4]
  • Crocodilus johnsoni
    Krefft, 1873
  • Crocodilus (Philas) johnstoni
    Gray, 1874
  • Philas johnstoni
    Wells & Wellington, 1984
  • Crocodylus johnstoni
    Cogger, 2000

The freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni or Crocodylus johnsoni; see below), also known as the Australian freshwater crocodile, Johnstone's crocodile or colloquially as freshie, is a species of crocodile endemic to the northern regions of Australia.

Unlike their much larger Australian relative, the saltwater crocodile, freshwater crocodiles are not known as man-eaters and rarely cause fatalities, although they will bite in self-defence if cornered

Taxonomy and etymology[edit]

When Gerard Krefft named the species in 1873, he intended to commemorate the man who first reported it to him, Australian Native Police officer and amateur naturalist Robert Arthur Johnstone (1843-1905).[4][5] However, Krefft made an error in writing the name, and for many years the species has been known as C. johnsoni. Recent studies of Krefft's papers have determined the correct spelling of the name, and much of the literature has been updated to the correct usage. However, both versions still exist. According to the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the epithet johnstoni (rather than the original johnsoni) is correct.[6][7][8]

Description[edit]

The freshwater crocodile is a relatively small crocodilian. Males can grow to 2.3–3 m (7.5–9.8 ft) long, while females reach a maximum size of 2.1 m (6.9 ft).[6] Males commonly weigh around 70 kg (150 lb), with large specimens up to 100 kg (220 lb) or more, against the female weight of 40 kg (88 lb).[9] In areas such as Lake Argyle and Katherine Gorge there exist a handful of confirmed 4 metres (13 ft) individuals. This species is shy and has a more slender snout and have slightly smaller teeth than the dangerous saltwater crocodile. The body colour is light brown with darker bands on the body and tail—these tend to be broken up near the neck. Some individuals possess distinct bands or speckling on the snout. Body scales are relatively large, with wide, close-knit armoured plates on the back. Rounded, pebbly scales cover the flanks and outsides of the legs.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Freshwater crocodiles are found in the states of Western Australia, Queensland, and the Northern Territory. Main habitats include freshwater wetlands, billabongs, rivers and creeks. This species can live in areas where saltwater crocodiles can not, and are known to inhabit areas above the escarpment in Kakadu National Park and in very arid and rocky conditions (such as Katherine Gorge, where they are common and are relatively safe from saltwater crocodiles during the dry season). However, they are still consistently found in low-level billabongs, living alongside the saltwater crocodiles near the tidal reaches of rivers.

In May 2013, a freshwater crocodile was seen in a river near the desert town of Birdsville, hundreds of kilometres south of their normal range. A local ranger suggested that years of flooding may have washed the animal south, or it may have been dumped as a juvenile.[10]

Biology and behavior[edit]

They compete poorly with saltwater crocodiles; however, this species is saltwater tolerant. Adult crocodiles eat fish, birds, bats, reptiles and amphibians, although larger individuals may take prey as large as a wallaby.

One has even been filmed being eaten by an olive python after a struggle that lasted for an estimated 5 hours.[11]

Reproduction[edit]

Eggs are laid in holes during the Australian dry season (usually in August) and hatch at the beginning of the wet season (November/December). The crocodiles do not defend their nests during incubation. From one to five days prior to hatching, the young begin to call from within the eggs. This induces and synchronizes hatching in siblings and stimulates adults to open the nest. It is not known if the adult that opens a given nest is the female which laid the eggs. As young emerge from the nest, the adult picks them up one by one in the tip of its mouth and transports them to the water. Adults may also assist young in breaking through the egg shell by chewing or manipulating the eggs in its mouth.[12]

Diet[edit]

Feeding in the wild, freshwater crocodiles will eat a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate prey. These preys may include crustaceans, insects, spiders, fishes, frogs, turtles, snakes, birds and various mammals. Insects appear to be the most common food, followed by fish. Small prey is usually obtained by a ‘sit-and-wait’ method, whereby the crocodile lies motionless in shallow water and waits for fish and insects to come within close range, before they are snapped up in a sideways action. However, larger prey like wallabies and water birds may be stalked and ambushed in a manner similar to that of the saltwater crocodile.

Digestive System[edit]

The crocodiles have teeth that have adapted for capturing and holding prey, and food is swallowed without chewing. The digestive tract is short, as they feed on meat and it is a relatively simple thing to swallow and digest. The stomach has two compartments: a muscular gizzard that grinds food, and a digestive chamber where enzymes act on the food. The crocodile's stomach is comparatively acidic than that of any other vertebrate and contains ridges that lead to the mechanical breakdown of food. The digestion takes place at a faster pace at high temperatures. They have a low metabolic rate and less energy is needed by requirements. This means that they can survive for many months on a single large meal, slowly digesting the food. They can withstand great fasting due to the stored fat. Even new hatchlings are able to survive for 58 days, losing just 23% of their body weight. An adult freshwater crocodile needs between a tenth and a fifth of the amount needed for a lion of the same weight. This allows them to live for a half a year without eating. While the food is going down the food pipe, it is met by sand and rocks these elements help break down the horns, hooves, hair, and flesh. Ow the more broken-down material enters a pool of hydrochloric acid. But to keep from digesting itself the crocodile has layers in its body made layers in its body made of epithelial cells to protect itself from the delayed acid. Otherwise, the crocodile will be digested.

Circulation System[edit]

The hearts of other reptiles are designed to contain three sections including two atriums and ventricle. The right atrium, which collects the returned de-oxygenated blood and the left atrium which collects the oxygenated blood collected from pulmonary arteries of the lung, takes the blood to a common ventricle. When there is just one ventricle to receive and mix oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, a mixture of blood which has less oxygen is pumped to their body. These crocodiles have a complicate vertebrate circulatory system. It has a four-chambered heart and two ventricles. Like birds and mammals, crocodiles have heart valves that direct blood flows in a single direction through the heart chambers. When underwater, the crocodile's heart rate slows down to one or two beats a minute, and muscles receive less blood flow. When it comes out of the water and takes a breath, its heart rate speeds up in seconds, and the muscles receive oxygen-rich blood. Unlike many marine mammals, crocodiles have a small amount of myoglobin to store oxygen in their muscles.

Conservation status[edit]

Freshwater crocodile at Australia Zoo

Until recently, the freshwater crocodile was common in northern Australia, especially where saltwater crocodiles are absent (such as more arid inland areas and higher elevations). In recent years, the population has dropped dramatically due to the ingestion of the invasive cane toad. The toad is poisonous to freshwater crocodiles, although not to saltwater crocodiles, and the toad is rampant throughout the Australian wilderness.[13] The crocodiles are also infected by Griphobilharzia amoena, a parasitic trematode, in regions such as Darwin.[14]

Danger towards humans[edit]

Although the freshwater crocodile does not attack humans as potential prey, it can deliver a nasty bite. There have been very few incidents where people have been bitten whilst swimming with freshwater crocodiles, and others incurred during scientific study. An attack by a freshwater crocodile on a human was recorded at Barramundi Gorge (also known as Maguk) in Kakadu National Park and resulted in minor injuries; the victim managed to swim and walk away from the attack. He had apparently passed directly over the crocodile in the water. However, in general, it is still considered safe to swim with this species, so long as they are not aggravated.[15]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). "Crocodylus johnsoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
  2. ^ "Crocodylus johnstoni". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  3. ^ ... johnstoni means "of Johnstone", derived from the name of the first European to discover and report it to Krefft. Unfortunately Krefft misspelled the name "johnsoni " in his initial description and his subsequent correction was ignored until 1983 when the nomenclature was reviewed thoroughly by Hal Cogger (Cogger 1983). Although the majority of scientific literature, including all Australian Federal, State and Territory legislation has been using "johnstoni " correctly since then, the uncorrected version is still popular especially in the US on the basis of a later taxonomic review (King and Burke 1989) that ignored Cogger's revision. http://crocodilian.com/cnhc/csp_cjoh.htm Crocodilian Species List, Crocodylus johnstoni (KREFFT, 1873).
  4. ^ a b "Crocodylus johnsoni ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  5. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Crocodylus johnstoni, p. 136).
  6. ^ a b c Britton, Adam. "Crocodylus johnstoni ". Florida Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  7. ^ ICZN Code Art. 32.5
  8. ^ Cogger H (1983). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "Crocodile turns up in river near Birdsville". 23 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
  11. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/australiaandpacific/australia/10672439/Snake-eats-crocodile-in-battle-at-Australian-lake.html
  12. ^ Somaweera, Ruchira; Shine, Richard (September 2012). "Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni ) transport their hatchlings to the water". Journal of Herpetology. 46 (3): 407–411. doi:10.1670/11-056.
  13. ^ "Crocodiles falling victim to cane toads". ABC News. 29 December 2008.
  14. ^ Platt TR, Blair D, Purdie J, Melville L (1991). "Griphobilharzia amoena n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a parasite of the freshwater crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni (Reptilia: Crocodylia) from Australia, with the erection of a new subfamily, Griphobilharziinae". Journal of Parasitology. 77 (1): 65–68. doi:10.2307/3282558. JSTOR 3282558.
  15. ^ http://aebrain.blogspot.com/2003/09/how-embarressing.html

Further reading[edit]

  • Boulenger GA (1889). Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). New Edition. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). x + 311 pp. + Plates I-III. (Crocodilus johnstonii, pp. 279-280).
  • Cogger H (2014). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Seventh Edition. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. xxx + 1,033 pp. ISBN 978-0643100350.
  • Gray JE (1874). "On Crocodilus johnstoni, Krefft". Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1874: 177-178 + Plate XXVII.
  • Krefft G (1873). "Remarks on Australian Crocodiles, and Description of a New Species". Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1873: 334-335. (Crocodilus johnsoni, new species, p. 335).