Freue dich, erlöste Schar, BWV 30
|Freue dich, erlöste Schar |
|Church cantata by J. S. Bach|
Nativity of St. John the Baptist, the occasion celebrated by this cantata
|Performed||24 June 1738 Leipzig:|
"Tröstet, tröstet meine Lieben"|
by Johann Olearius
|Vocal||SATB choir and solo|
Freue dich, erlöste Schar (Rejoice, redeemed flock), BWV 30,[a] is a church cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist ("Fest Johannes des Täufers", also "Johannistag") and first performed it on 24 June 1738.
History and text
Bach composed the cantata in Leipzig for St. John's Day. The prescribed readings for the feast day were from the Book of Isaiah, "the voice of a preacher in the desert" (Isaiah 40:1–5), and from the Gospel of Luke, the birth of John the Baptist and the Benedictus of Zechariah (Luke 1:57–80). The cantata was composed in Leipzig in or around 1738, based on a secular cantata, Angenehmes Wiederau, BWV 30a, composed in 1737 in Leipzig to celebrate the acquisition of the manor and estate at Wiederau by Johann Christian von Hennickes.
Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander), the librettist of the secular cantata BWV 30a, has been proposed as the author of the libretto for the church cantata. The text of the chorale movement is by Johann Olearius, from the third stanza of his 1671 hymn "Tröstet, tröstet meine Lieben". The chorale theme is "Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele". The chorale melody was codified by Louis Bourgeois when setting the Geneva Psalm 42 in his collection of Pseaumes octante trios de David (Geneva, 1551). Bourgeois seems to have been influenced by the secular song "Ne l'oseray je dire" contained in the Manuscrit de Bayeux published around 1510.
Scoring and structure
The piece is scored for four vocal soloists (soprano, alto, tenor, bass), a four-part choir, three trumpets, timpani, two oboes, two flauti traversi, oboe d'amore, two violins, viola, and basso continuo.
The cantata is in twelve movements, divided in two parts, to be performed before and after the sermon:
- Chorus: Freue dich, erlöste Schar
- Recitative (bass): Wir haben Rast
- Aria (bass): Gelobet sei Gott, gelobet sein Name
- Recitative (alto): Der Herold kömmt und meldt den König an
- Aria (alto): Kommt, ihr angefochtnen Sünder
- Chorale: Eine Stimme lässt sich hören
- Recitative (bass): So bist du denn, mein Heil, bedacht
- Aria (bass): Ich will nun hassen
- Recitative (soprano): Und obwohl sonst der Unbestand
- Aria (soprano): Eilt, ihr Stunden, kommt herbei
- Recitative (tenor): Geduld, der angenehme Tag
- Chorus: Freue dich, geheilgte Schar
The duration is given as 40 minutes.
The opening chorus is in D major and displays continuous dynamic musical movement. It adopts a syncopated introductory rhythm that later reappears in the alto aria. The form is between a da capo and a rondo: the A section appears in the middle of the B section. The movement also reverses expectations regarding introductions, beginning with a combined vocal and instrumental thematic statement before presenting it without voices.
All of the recitatives in Part I are secco. The "dazzling and brilliant" bass aria of Part I is characterized by triplet figures and includes full string accompaniment in roulades. It includes the same foundational motive as the alto aria, and is formally in modified ternary. The alto aria is remarkable for its binary-form ritornello and "blues-like" final cadence; structurally, the movement is a gavotte. Craig Smith notes that "one can hardly think of another Bach aria that so profoundly illustrates a state of grace. The gentle dance rhythms are celestial and heavenly in their inexorable progress". Part I concludes with the cantata's only chorale.
Part II opens with the cantata's only recitativo accompagnato, for bass with oboes and continuo. This prepares a bass aria, which opens with an "aggressive 'scotch snap'" that repeats throughout the movement. A secco soprano recitative prepares a 9/8 soprano aria with chromatic bass, gigue rhythms, and an operatic style. The penultimate movement is a tenor recitative with "elongated phrases and weird chromatic harmonies", representing a tortured soul. The piece concludes with a repetition of the chorus on different text.
- Heinrich-Schütz-Chor Heilbronn / Württembergisches Kammerorchester Heilbronn, Fritz Werner. Les Grandes Cantates de J. S. Bach Vol. 26. Erato, 1972.
- Münchener Bach-Chor / Münchener Bach-Orchester, Karl Richter. Bach Cantatas Vol. 3 – Ascension Day, Whitsun, Trinity. Archiv Produktion, 1975.
- Gächinger Kantorei / Württembergisches Kammerorchester Heilbronn, Helmuth Rilling. Die Bach Kantate Vol. 9. Hänssler, 1984.
- Holland Boys Choir / Netherlands Bach Collegium, Pieter Jan Leusink. Bach Edition Vol. 15 – Cantatas Vol. 8. Brilliant Classics, 2000.
- Monteverdi Choir / English Baroque Soloists, John Eliot Gardiner. Bach Cantatas Vol. 1: City of London. Soli Deo Gloria, 2000.
- Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Ton Koopman. J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 22. Antoine Marchand, 2002.
- Montréal Baroque, Eric J. Milnes. Bach Cantates De Saint-Jean Baptiste. ATMA Classique, 2004.
- Bach Collegium Japan, Masaaki Suzuki. J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 55, 2013.
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
- Dürr, Alfred; Jones, Richard D. P. (2006). The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. Oxford University Press. pp. 689–694. ISBN 978-0-19-929776-4.
- Craig Smith. "Programme notes – BWV 30". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Cantata BWV 30". bach-cantatas. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Dorothea Schröder (2012). Johann Sebastian Bach (in German). CH Beck. p. 74. ISBN 978-3-406-62228-1.
- C. S. Terry and D. Litti (1917). "Bach's Cantata Libretti". Journal of the Royal Musical Association. 44 (1): 71–125. doi:10.1093/jrma/44.1.71.
- Melvin P. Unger (1996). Handbook to Bach's Sacred Cantata Texts. Scarecrow Press. p. 755. ISBN 978-1-4616-5905-1.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele". Bach Cantatas Webite. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Julian Mincham. "Chapter 52 BWV 30". jsbachcantatas. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Freue dich, erlöste Schar, BWV 30: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Freue dich, erlöste Schar BWV 30; BC A 178 / Sacred cantata (Birth of John the Baptist (24 June) Bach Digital
- Cantata BWV 30 Freue dich, erlöste Schar: history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, Bach Cantatas Website
- BWV 30 Freue dich, erlöste Schar: English translation, University of Vermont
- Luke Dahn: BWV 30.6 bach-chorales.com