Friar: Difference between revisions

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[[File:Agustinos Recoletos.jpg|thumb|upright|A group of friars; novices of the Order of [[Augustinian Recollects]] at the Monastery of Marcilla, Navarra, Spain]]
[[File:Agustinos Recoletos.jpg|thumb|upright|A group of friars; novices of the Order of [[Augustinian Recollects]] at the Monastery of Marcilla, Navarra, Spain]]
A '''friar''', or occasionally '''fray''', is a man who is a member of a [[mendicant orders|mendicant]] [[religious order]] in [[Catholic Christianity]]. "Fray" is sometimes used in former Spanish colonies such as [[the Philippines]] or the [[American Southwest]] as a title, such as in [[Fray Juan de Torquemada]].
==Friars and monks==
Friars are different from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels (vows of poverty, chastity and obedience) in service to society, rather than through [[cloister]]ed [[asceticism]] and devotion. Whereas monks live in a self-sufficient community, friars work among laypeople and are supported by donations or other charitable support.<ref>[[s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Friar|Catholic encyclopedia entry for "friar"]]</ref> A monk or nun makes their vows and commits to a particular community in a particular place. Friars commit to a community spread across a wider geographical area known as a [[Ecclesiastical province#Religious order organization|province]], and so they will typically move around, spending time in different houses of the community within his province.
The English term ''Friar'' is derived from the [[Anglo-Norman language|Norman French]] word ''frere'' ("brother"), from the [[Latin language|Latin]] ''frater'' ("brother"), which was widely used in the Latin [[New Testament]] to refer to members of the Christian community.
In the Roman Catholic Church, there are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders".
===Four great orders===
The four great orders were mentioned by the [[Second Council of Lyons]] (1274), and are:
* The '''[[Dominican Order|Dominicans]]''', founded ca. 1216. They are also known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle ("cappa") worn over their white habit. The Dominicans were founded by [[St. Dominic]] and received papal approval from [[Honorius III]] in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the [[Rule of St. Augustine]]. They became a [[mendicant]] order in 1221.
* The '''[[Franciscan]]s''', founded in 1209. They are also known as the "Friars Minor" or the "Grey Friars". The Franciscans were founded by [[St. Francis of Assisi]] and received oral papal approval by [[Innocent III]] in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by [[Honorius III]] in 1223. Today the Friars Minor is composed of three branches: the OFM (Brown Franciscans), OFMConv (Grey Friars) and the OFMCap ([[Order of Friars Minor Capuchin|Capuchins]]).
* The '''[[Carmelites]]''', founded ca. 1155.<ref></ref> They are also known as the "White Friars" because of the white cloak which covers their brown habit. They received papal approval from [[Honorius III]] in 1226 and later by [[Innocent IV]] in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, those of the Ancient Observance (O.Carm.) and those of the [[Discalced]] Carmelites (O.C.D.), founded by St. Teresa of Avila in the 16th century.
* The '''[[Augustinians]]''', founded in 1244 (the "Little Union") and enlarged in 1256 (the "Grand Union"). They are also known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars". Their rule is based on the writings of [[Augustine of Hippo]]. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244 (Little Union). Additional groups were added by [[Pope Alexander IV|Alexander IV]] in 1256 (Grand Union).
===Lesser orders===
Some of the lesser orders are:
* the [[Trinitarian Order|Trinitarians]], established in 1198
* the [[Order of Mercy|Mercedarians]], established in 1218
* the [[Servites]], established in 1240
* the [[Minim (religious order)|Minims]], established in 1474
* the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, a branch of the [[Third Order of St. Francis]], part of the Franciscan Order established in 1521
* the [[Discalced Carmelites]], established in 1568
* the [[Order of Augustinian Recollects]], established in 1598 through the [[Chapter of Toledo]]
* the [[Trinitarian Order|Discalced Trinitarians]], established in 1599
* the [[Order of Penance]], established in 1781
==Uses by other Christian traditions==
Orders of friars (and sisters) exist in other Christian traditions, including the [[Order of Lutheran Franciscans]] and the [[Order of Ecumenical Franciscans]].
==Other name use==
Several high schools, as well as Providence College, use friars as their [[mascot]]. The [[Major League Baseball|MLB's]] [[San Diego Padres]] have the [[List of Major League Baseball mascots#Swinging Friar(San Diego)|Swinging Friar]].
The University of Michigan's oldest ''[[a cappella]]'' group is a male octet known as The Friars.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=The University of Michigan Friars :: History|publisher=University of Michigan Friars|accessdate=1 October 2010}}</ref>
The [[University of Pennsylvania]] has a senior honor society known as Friars.
==See also==
*[[Brother (Catholic)]]
*[[Priesthood (Catholic Church)]]
==External links==
*[] information about Catholic religious communities and life as a sister, brother, or priest.
*[] helps those discerning a Catholic religious vocation sort through options and find the order or vocation that may be right for them.
*[] digital edition of VISION, the annual Catholic religious vocation discernment guide.
[[Category:Religious occupations]]
[[Category:History of Roman Catholicism]]

Revision as of 23:50, 16 October 2013

A group of friars; novices of the Order of Augustinian Recollects at the Monastery of Marcilla, Navarra, Spain