Freiburg im Breisgau
|Freiburg im Breisgau|
View over Freiburg
|• Lord Mayor||Dieter Salomon (Greens)|
|• Total||153.07 km2 (59.10 sq mi)|
|Elevation||278 m (912 ft)|
|• Density||1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Dialling codes||0761, 07664, 07665|
Freiburg im Breisgau (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁaɪ̯bʊʁk ʔɪm ˈbʁaɪ̯sɡaʊ̯] ( listen); Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau [ˈfʁiːb̥əɡ̊]; French: Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. A famous old German university town, and archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial, intellectual, and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region. The city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, and held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) from 2003 to 2015.
Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town; hence its name, which translates to "free (or independent) town". Frei means "free", and Burg, like the modern English word "borough", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town, usually one with some degree of autonomy. The German word Burg also means "a fortified town", as in Hamburg. Thus, it is likely that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens".
This town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 1200, Freiburg's population numbered approximately 6,000 people. At about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice. In 1218, when Bertold V died, then Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburg's count as Egino I von Freiburg. The city council did not trust the new nobles and wrote down its established rights in a document. At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg. Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the citizens' freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the count's castle atop the Schloßberg, a hill that overlooks the city center. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, for help. The bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg.
According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299. It was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368. In 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid. Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach (1386). The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted. The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by 1389.
The silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg. This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, and in 1327 Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In 1377 the cities of Freiburg, Basel, Colmar, and Breisach entered into an monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs (Rappenpfennig Collective). This alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,000-9,000 people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 30 churches and monasteries. At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, and by 1460 only approximately 6,000 people still lived within Freiburg's city walls.
A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences. It was also a commercial center. The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.
In 1457, Albrecht VI, Regent of Further Austria, established Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, one of Germany's oldest universities. In 1498, Emperor Maximilian I held a Reichstag in Freiburg. In 1520, the city ratified a set of legal reforms, widely considered the most progressive of the time. The aim was to find a balance between city traditions and old Roman Law. The reforms were well received, especially the sections dealing with civil process law, punishment, and the city's constitution.
In 1536, a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt. The need to find a scapegoat for calamities such as the Black Plague, which claimed 2,000 area residents (25% of the city population) in 1564, led to an escalation in witch-hunting that reached its peak in 1599. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot where burnings were carried out.
The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,000-14,000 citizens in Freiburg; by its end only 2,000 remained. During this war and other conflicts, the city belonged at various times to the Austrians, the French, the Swedish, the Spanish, and various members of the German Confederacy. Between 1648 and 1805, when the city was not under French occupation it was the administrative headquarters of Further Austria, the Habsburg territories in the southwest of Germany. In 1805, the city, together with the Breisgau and Ortenau areas, became part of Baden.
On 22 October 1940, the Nazi Gauleiter of Baden, Robert Heinrich Wagner, ordered the deportation of all of Baden's and 350 of Freiburg's Jewish population. They were deported to Camp Gurs in the south of France, where many died. On 18 July 1942, the remaining Baden and Freiburg Jews were transferred to Auschwitz in Nazi-occupied Poland, where almost all were murdered. A living memorial has been created in the form of the 'footprint' in marble on the site of the city's original synagogue, which was burned down by the Nazis on 9 November 1938, during the pogrom known as Kristallnacht. The memorial is a children's paddling pool and contains a bronze plaque commemorating the original building and the Jewish community which perished. The pavements of Freiburg carry memorials to individual victims, in the form of brass plates outside their former residences.
Freiburg was heavily bombed during World War II. In May 1940, aircraft of the Luftwaffe mistakenly dropped approximately 60 bombs on Freiburg near the railway station, killing 57 people. On 27 November 1944, a raid by more than 300 bombers of RAF Bomber Command (Operation Tigerfish) destroyed a large portion of the city centre, with the notable exception of the Münster, which was only lightly damaged. After the war, the city was rebuilt on its medieval plan.
It was occupied by the French Army on 21 April 1945, and Freiburg was soon allotted to the French Zone of Occupation. In December 1945 Freiburg became the seat of government for the German state Badenia, which was merged into Baden-Württemberg in 1952. The French Army maintained a presence in Freiburg until 1991, when the last French Army division left the city, and left Germany.
On the site of the former French Army base, a new neighborhood for 5,000 people, Vauban, was begun in the late 1990s as a "sustainable model district". Solar power provides electricity to many of the households in this small community.
Because of its scenic beauty, relatively warm and sunny climate, and easy access to the Black Forest, Freiburg is a hub for regional tourism. The longest cable car run in Germany, which is 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) long, runs from Günterstal up to a nearby mountain called Schauinsland. The city has an unusual system of gutters (called Freiburg Bächle) that run throughout its centre. These Bächle, once used to provide water to fight fires and feed livestock, are constantly flowing with water diverted from the Dreisam. They were never intended to be used for sewage, and even in the Middle Ages such use could lead to harsh penalties. During the summer, the running water provides natural cooling of the air, and offers a pleasant gurgling sound. It is said that if one accidentally falls or steps into a Bächle, they will marry a Freiburger, or 'Bobbele'.
The Augustinerplatz is one of the central squares in the old city. Formerly the location of an Augustinian monastery that became the Augustiner Museum in 1921, it is now a popular social space for Freiburg's younger residents. It has a number of restaurants and bars, including the local brewery 'Feierling', which has a Biergarten. On warm summer nights, hundreds of students gather here.
At the centre of the old city is the Münsterplatz or Cathedral Square, Freiburg's largest square. A farmers market is held here every day except Sundays. This is the site of Freiburg's Münster, a gothic minster cathedral constructed of red sandstone, built between 1200 and 1530 and noted for its towering spire.
The Historical Merchants' Hall (Historisches Kaufhaus), is a Late Gothic building on the south side of Freiburg's Münsterplatz. Built between 1520 and 1530, it was once the center of the financial life of the region. Its façade is decorated with statues and the coat of arms of four Habsburg emperors.
The Altes Rathaus, or old city hall, was completed in 1559 and has a painted façade. The Platz der alten Synagoge "Old Synagogue Square" is one of the more important squares on the outskirts of the historic old city. The square was the location of a synagogue until it was destroyed on Kristallnacht in 1938. Zum Roten Bären, the oldest hotel in Germany, is located along Oberlinden near the Swabian Gate.
The Siegesdenkmal, or victory monument, is a monument to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. It is situated at the northern edge of the historic city center of Freiburg. The Siegesdenkmal was built by Karl Friedrich Moest. In everyday language of people living in Freiburg, it serves as an orientation marker or as a meeting place.
To the east of the city centre, the Schlossberg hill provides extensive views over the city and surrounding region. The castle (Schloss) from which the hill takes its name was demolished in the 1740s, and only ruins remain. Schlossberg retained its importance to the city, however, and 150 years ago the city leaders opened up walks and views to make the mountain available to the public. Today, the Schlossbergbahn funicular railway connects the city centre to the hill.
Other museums in the city include the Archaeology Colombischlössle Museum.
Badische Zeitung is the main local daily paper, covering the Black Forest region.
In 2010, Freiburg was voted as the Academy of Urbanism's European City of the Year in recognition of the exemplary sustainable urbanism it has implemented over the past several decades.
Köppen climate classification classifies its climate as oceanic (Cfb). Marine features are limited however, as a result of its vast distance to oceans and seas. As a result, summers have a significant subtropical influence as the inland air heats up. July and August are even under normal circumstances akin to a heatwave for most of Germany. Winters are moderate but usually with frequent frosts.
|Climate data for Freiburg 1981-2010, sunshine 1990-2010, extremes 1973–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||19
|Average high °C (°F)||5.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.5
|Average low °C (°F)||0.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−17
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||47
|Source #1: Weatheronline.de|
|Source #2: Meteociel.fr|
|Largest groups of foreigners by country of origin|
Freiburg is known as an "eco-city". It has attracted the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, solar industries, and research; the Greens have a stronghold there (the strongest in any major German city; up to 35% of the overall city vote, in some neighbourhoods reaching 40% or more in the 2012 national elections). The newly built neighbourhoods of Vauban and Rieselfeld were developed and built according to the idea of sustainability. The citizens of Freiburg are known in Germany for their love of cycling and recycling.
In June 1995, the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of "low-energy buildings" on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications. Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. In addition to solar panels and collectors on the roof, providing electricity and hot water, many passive features use the sun’s energy to regulate the temperature of the rooms.
Freiburg is host to a number of international organisations, in particular, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, ISES - International Solar Energy Society, and the City Mayors Foundation.
The composition of Freiburg city council is as follows:
|Alliance '90/The Greens||11|
|Christian Democratic Union||9|
|Social Democratic Party||8|
|Left List / Solidarity City||4|
|Free Democratic Party||2|
|Green Alternative Freiburg||1|
|Christians for Freiburg||1|
Freiburg is a center of academia and research with numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates having lived, worked, and taught there.
The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, as well as its medical center. Home to some of the greatest minds of the West, including such eminent figures as Johann Eck, Max Weber, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Friedrich Hayek, it is one of Europe's top research and teaching institutions.
Freiburg also plays host to various other educational and research institutes, such as the Freiburg University of Education, the Protestant University for Applied Sciences Freiburg, Freiburg Music Academy, the Catholic University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, the International University of Cooperative Education IUCE, three Max Planck institutes, and five Fraunhofer institutes.
Freiburg has an extensive pedestrian zone in the city centre where no motor cars are allowed. Freiburg also has an excellent public transport system, operated by the city-owned VAG Freiburg. The backbone of the system is the Freiburg tramway network, supplemented by feeder buses.
Freiburg is on the main Frankfurt am Main - Basel railway line, with frequent and fast long-distance passenger services from the Freiburg Hauptbahnhof to major German and other European cities. Other railway lines run east into the Black Forest and west to Breisach. The line to Breisach is the remaining stub of the Freiburg–Colmar international railway, severed in 1945 when the railway bridge over the Rhine at Breisach was destroyed, and was never replaced.
Freiburg is served by EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in France, close to the borders of both Germany and Switzerland, 70 km (43 mi) south of Freiburg. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden airport (Baden Airpark) is approximately 100 km (62 mi) north of Freiburg and is also served by several airlines. The nearest larger international airports include Stuttgart (200 km (120 mi)), Frankfurt/Main (260 km (160 mi)), and Munich (430 km (270 mi)). The nearby Flugplatz Freiburg, a small airfield in the Messe, Freiburg district, lacks commercial service but is used for private aviation.
Car share website such as Mitfahrgelegenheit are commonly used among Freiburg residents since it is considered relatively safe.
Twin towns, sister cities
Freiburg is twinned with:
Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's controversial comments, which included questioning the dimension of the Holocaust, have sparked discussions concerning Freiburg's relationship with Isfahan. Immediately following the comments, Freiburg mayor Salomon postponed a trip to Isfahan, but most people involved, especially those in the Alliance '90/The Greens party, were opposed to cancelling the relationship.
The city's coat of arms is Argent a cross Gules, the St George's Cross. Saint George is the city's patron saint. The cross also appears on the city's flag, which dates from about 1368, and is identical to that of England, which has the same patron.
The city also has a seal that can be seen in a few places in the inner city. It is a stylized depiction of the façade of the Wasserschlössle, a castle-like waterworks facility built into a hill that overlooks the residential district of Wiehre. The seal depicts a three-towered red castle on a white background, with green-clad trumpeters atop the two outer towers. Beneath the castle is a gold fleur-de-lis.
Points of interest
- Arboretum Freiburg-Günterstal, an arboretum in the suburb of Günterstal
- Freiburg Botanic Garden
- University of Freiburg
- University Library Freiburg, the newly renovated library features a modern design
- The Whale House, which, in Dario Argento's 1977 horror film Suspiria, served as the Dance Academy, the film's central location
- Augustiner Museum
- Freiburg Munster
- Schlossberg (Freiburg)
- Colombischlössle Archeological Museum
- Green Spaces in Freiburg
- Vauban, Freiburg, a sustainable eco-community
- Cobblestone mosaics (Freiburg im Breisgau)
- Wolfram Aichele, (1924-2016), artist
- Hannah Arendt, (1906-1975), political theorist
- Joseph Freiherr von Auffenberg, (1798-1857), playwright and poet
- Kurt Bauch, (1897-1975), art historian
- Aloysius Bellecius (1704-1757), Jesuit ascetic author
- Walter Benjamin, (1892-1940), literary critic and philosopher
- Hoimar von Ditfurth, (1921-1989), physician
- Alfred Döblin, (1878-1957), physician and novelist
- Hedy Epstein, (1924-2016), Holocaust refugee and activist
- Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, (1466-1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist and theologian
- Walter Eucken, economist
- Max von Gallwitz, general and politician
- Miriam Gebhardt, historian
- Svetlana Geier, translator
- Friedrich Gempp, (1873-1947) Major General and the founder and first director of the Department Defence of Reichswehr
- Hans F. K. Günther, Nazi eugenicist
- Heinrich Haussler, professional cyclist Cervelo TestTeam
- Dany Heatley, former player for the Minnesota Wild, Anaheim Ducks, San Jose Sharks, Ottawa Senators, and Atlanta Thrashers NHL teams.
- Martin Heidegger, philosopher
- Waldemar Hoven (1903–1948), Nazi physician executed for war crimes
- Edmund Husserl, philosopher
- Hans Jantzen, art historian
- Marie-Laurence Jungfleisch, athlete
- Walter Kaufmann, philosopher
- Boris Kodjoe, U.S.-based model and actor
- Benjamin Lebert, (born 1982), author and newspaper columnist
- Johann Nepomuk Locherer, (1773-1837), Roman Catholic priest, theologian and professor.
- Joachim Löw, (born 1960), coach of the German national football team since 2006
- Hanns Ludin (1905–1947), Nazi diplomat executed for war crimes
- Andreas Lutz, (born 1981), media artist
- Gerhard Markson, conductor
- Carl Christian Mez, (1866-1944), botanist
- Karl Rahner, (1904-1984), Catholic theologian
- Karl von Rotteck, (1775-1840), historian and liberal politician
- Wolfgang Schäuble, (born 1942), Minister of the Interior, 1989–1991, in Helmut Kohl and, 2005 - current, Angela Merkel governments
- Marcel Schirmer, singer and bassist for the metal band Destruction
- Bernhard Sigmund Schultze, (1827–1919) obstetrician
- Jürgen Schrempp, former head of DaimlerChrysler
- Berthold Schwarz, fabled alchemist who supposedly introduced gunpowder to Germany
- Til Schweiger, actor and director
- Hermann Staudinger, Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
- Edith Stein, Saint of the Catholic Church, martyred by the Nazis, Freiburg university faculty member; her residence is marked by a plaque and a Stolperstein
- Friedrich von Hayek, economist, philosopher, Nobel Prize laureate in economics
- Christoph von Marschall, journalist
- Martin Waldseemüller, Renaissance cartographer
- Otto Heinrich Warburg, 1931 recipient of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; awarded Iron Cross 1st class (1918).
- Max Weber, (1864-1920), lawyer, political economist, and sociologist
- August Weismann, biologist
- Joseph Wirth, (1879-1956), politician (center), MdR, chancellor, foreign minister, minister of the interior
- Bernhard Witkop, organic chemist
- Engelbert Zaschka, inventor and one of the first German helicopter pioneers
- Joana Zimmer, pop singer
- "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 2016.
- Website for the German Agricultural Society: Baden (accessed on January 1, 2008)."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2008-01-01.
- Temperature extremes
- "Stadt Freiburg im Breisgau: History". www.freiburg.de (Stadt Freiburg im Breisgau). Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-11., also Arnold, Benjamin German Knighthood1050-1300 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985) p. 123.
- "Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more". Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- Spector, Shmuel and Wigoder, Geoffrey, The Encyclopedia of Jewish life Before and During the Holocaust, New York University Press 2001. See Die Synagoge in Freiburg im Breisgau.
- Robinson, Derek (2005). Invasion 1940. London: Constable & Robinson. pp. 31–32. ISBN 1-84529-151-4.
- "Erlebniswelt Schlossberg" [Experience Schlossberg] (in German). Stadt Freiburg. Archived from the original on 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- "Freiburg/Breisgau historic weather averages" (in German). weatheronline.de. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Freiburg/Breisgau historic extremes" (in French). Meteociel.fr. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Rangfolge der verschiedenen Nationalitäten in Freiburg im Detail, (City of Freiburg im Breisgau)
- Andrew Purvis. "Freiburg, Germany: is this the greenest city in the world?". the Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "City Mayors: About City Mayors". Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "European Union". Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Lawyer Freiburg". Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-10. Retrieved 2005-12-19.
- Käflein, Achim (photographs); Huber, Alexander (German text) (2008). Trefzer-Käflein, Annette, ed. Freiburg. Freund, BethAnne (English translation). Freiburg: edition-kaeflein.de. ISBN 978-3-940788-01-6. OCLC 301982091.
- The Freiburg Charter for Sustainable Urbanism - a collaboration between the City of Freiburg and The Academy of Urbanism
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Freiburg.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Freiburg.|
- Official website
- Freiburg Breisgau digital city tour
- Freiburg Breisgau Tourism & History & Pictures
- Freiburg City Panoramas – Panoramic views and virtual tours
- City of Freiburg
- Freiburg University of Education
- VAG Freiburg Freiburg Public Transit Authority
- Freiburg-Home.com – Information & Reviews about Freiburg
- Webcams in Freiburg and the Black Forest
- Tramway in Freiburg
- fudder – a popular online magazine about Freiburg (Winner of Grimme Online Award 2007)
- Freiburg's History for Pedestrians
- Freiburg - Green City
- Hotels in Freiburg
- BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany): Freiburg & Environment: Ecological Capital – Environmental Capital – Solar City - Sustainable City - Green City?
- Freiburg Excursion Destinations and Film Recommendations