|Official name||صلاة الجمعة|
|Also called||Salah Djoumouâa|
|Significance||A Muslim prayer offered to God weekly at the noon hour of the morning.|
|Begins||Zenith - Noon|
|Related to||Salah, Siesta, Nap, Five Pillars of Islam|
In Islam, Juma (Arabic: جُمُعَة; lit. "Friday") is the holiest day of the week on which special congregational prayers are offered. Fridays are considered a celebration in their own right and Muslims take special care in wearing clean clothes, bathing, and preparing special meals on this day. Friday prayers (Arabic: صَلَاة ٱلْجُمُعَة, Ṣalāt al-Jumuʿah) take place in the afternoon before the Zuhr prayer. The term Jumu’ah is derived from the same root from which jama'a is derived, which means "the gathering of people."  In many Muslim countries, the weekend is inclusive of Fridays, while in others, Fridays are half-days for schools and some workplaces.
It is one of the most exalted Islamic rituals and one of its confirmed obligatory acts.
There is consensus among Muslims regarding the Friday prayer (salat al-jumu’ah) being wajib in accordance with the Quranic verse, as well as the many traditions narrated both by Shi’i and Sunni sources. According to the majority of Sunni schools and some Shiite jurists, Friday prayer is a religious obligation, but their differences were based on whether its obligation is conditional to the presence of the ruler or his deputy in it or if it is wajib unconditionally. The Hanafis and the Imams believe that the presence of the ruler or his deputy is necessary; the Friday prayer is not obligatory if neither of them is present. The Imamis require the ruler to be just (‘adil); otherwise his presence is equal to his absence. To the Hanafis, his presence is sufficient even if he is not just. The Shafi‘is, Malikis and Hanbalis attach no significance to the presence of the ruler.
Moreover, it has been stated that Jumu'ah is not obligatory for old men, children, women, slaves, travellers, the sick, blind and disabled, as well as those who are outside the limit of two farsakhs.[page needed]
In Islamic texts
It is mentioned in the Quran:
O you who have faith! When the call is made for prayer on Friday, hurry toward the remembrance of God, and leave all business. That is better for you, should you know. And when the prayer is finished, disperse through the land and seek God's grace, and remember God greatly so that you may be successful.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "On every Friday the angels take their stand at every gate of the mosques to write the names of the people chronologically (i.e. according to the time of their arrival for the Friday prayer) and when the Imam sits (on the pulpit) they fold up their scrolls and get ready to listen to the sermon."
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj an-Naysaburi relates that the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to read Surah 87 (Al-Ala) and Surah 88, (Al-Ghashiya), in Eid Prayers and also in Friday prayers. If one of the festivals fell on a Friday, Muhammad would have made sure to read these two Surahs in the prayers.
Muhammad is quoted as saying "The best day the sun rises over is Friday; on it Allah created Adam. On it, he was made to enter paradise, on it he was expelled from it, and the Last Hour will take place on no other day than Friday." [Ahmad and at-Tirmithi].
Aws ibn Aws, narrated that Muhammad said: “Whoever performs Ghusl on Friday and causes (his wife) to do ghusl, then goes early to the mosque and attends from the beginning of the Khutbah and draws near to the Imam and listens to him attentively, Allah will give him the full reward of fasting all the days of a year and observing night-vigil on each of its nights for every step that he took towards the mosque.” [Ibn Khuzaymah, Ahmad].
- "The Jumu'ah is the pilgrimage of the poor"
- "Whoever misses three Jumu'ah, being indifferent to them, Allah seals his heart".
- It has been related from Ahmad that the Prophet said: “A worshipper who washes fully on Friday then comes to Salatul Jumu'ah in the early time, then listens to the Imam's speeches and does not do anything wrong, Allah will grant this worshipper the reward of one year of fasting and prayer.
- “Any Muslim who dies during the day or night of Friday will be protected by Allah from the trial of the grave.” [At-Tirmithi and Ahmad].
- Also, hadith related by Al-Bukhari, quoted the Prophet saying that: "In the day of Friday, there exists an hour that if a worshipper asks from Allah, anything he wishes in this hour, Allah will grant it and does not reject it, as long as he or she did not wishing for bad".
- "Friday has 12 hours, one of which is hour where dua are granted for Muslim believers. This hour is thought to be in the afternoon, after asr prayer".
In Sunni Islam
The Jumu'ah prayer is half the Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer, for convenience, preceded by a khutbah (a sermon as a technical replacement of the two reduced rakaʿāt of the ordinary Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer), and followed by a congregational prayer, led by the imām. In most cases the khaṭīb also serves as the imam. Attendance is strictly incumbent upon all adult males who are legal residents of the locality. The muezzin (muʾadhdhin) makes the call to prayer, called the adhan, usually 15–20 minutes prior to the start of Jum'ah. When the khaṭīb takes his place on the minbar, a second adhan is made. The khaṭīb is supposed to deliver two sermons, stopping and sitting briefly between them. In practice, the first sermon is longer and contains most of the content. The second sermon is very brief and concludes with a dua, after which the muezzin calls the iqāmah. This signals the start of the main two rak'at prayer of Jumu'ah.
In Shia Islam
In Shia Islam, Salat al-Jumuah is Wajib Takhyiri (at the time of Occultation), which means that we have an option to offer Jumuah prayers, if its necessary conditions are fulfilled, or to offer Zuhr prayers. Hence, if Salat al-Jumuah is offered then it is not necessary to offer Zuhr prayer. It is also recommended by Shiite Scholars to attend Jumu'ah as it will become Wajib after the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi and Jesus Christ (Isa).
Shiite (Imamite) attach high significance to the presence of a just ruler or his representative or Faqih and in the absence of a just ruler or his representative and a just faqih, there exists an option between performing either the Friday or the zuhr prayer, although preference lies with the performance of Friday prayer.[clarification needed]
According to the history of Islam and the report from Abdullah bn 'Abbas narrated from the Prophet saying that: the permission to perform the Friday prayer was given by Allah before hijrah, but the people were unable to congregate and perform it. The Prophet wrote a note to Mus'ab b. Umair, who represented the Prophet in Madinah to pray two raka'at in congregation on Friday (that is, Jumu'ah). Then, after the migration of the Prophet to Medina, the Jumu'ah was held by him.
For Shiites, historically, their clergy discouraged Shiites from attending Friday prayers. According to them, communal Friday prayers with a sermon were wrong and had lapsed (along with several other religious practices) until the return of their 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. However, among others, Shiite modernist Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Khalisi (1890–1963) demanded that Shiites should more carefully observe Friday prayers in a step to bridge the gap with Sunnis. Later, the practice of communal Friday prayers was developed, and became standard there-afterwards, by Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran and later by Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr in Iraq. They justified the practice under the newly promoted Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists doctrine. When al-Sadr installed Friday prayer imams in Shia-majority areas—a practice not traditional in Iraqi Shiism and considered "revolutionary, if not heretical"—it put him at odds with the Shia religious establishment in Najaf. Under both Khomeini and al-Sadr, political sermons would be heard.
The communal prayers have higher compliance of worshipers, as compared to the non-communal ritual prayers. In Turkey for example, the ritual prayers are performed regularly by 44% of the whole adult population, whereas Friday prayers were regularly attended by 56% (25% responded that they sometimes attended and 19% that they didn't). However, these figures might not be accurate as many men in Turkey perform the Jumu'ah prayers at the workplace and many boys perform the Jumu'ah prayers at school.
An accurate Jumu'ah was said to fulfill certain conditions, including the follows :
- Friday prayer must be prayed in congregation.
- There must be a congregation attending the whole procedures of Jumu'ah. According to the Shafi‘i and Hanbali schools of Sunni jurisprudence the minimum number of attendees is 40 persons. Other schools confine the minimum number to 3 or 5 (better 7) persons including the Imam.
- According to a Shiite law, only one Friday prayer may be prayed in a radius of 3 miles (720 yards). If two prayers are held within this distance, the latter will be null and void.
- There must be two sermons delivered by the Imam before the prayer and attentively listened to by at least 4 (or 6) persons".
- A talk or sermon delivered in mosques before the Friday prayer. The sermon consists of two distinct parts, between which the Khatib(speaker) must sit down for a short time of rest.
- There should not be an undue interval or irrelevant action intervening between the sermon and the prayer. " It should preferably be in Arabic, especially the Qur'anic passage which has to be recited in the sermon. Otherwise, it should be given in the language understood by the majority of the faithful who are there. In this case the preacher should first recite in Arabic Qurʾānic verses praising God and Muhammad. "
- According to the majority of Shiite and Sunni doctrine, the contents must contain the following: "
- The praise and glorification of Allah.
- Invocation of blessings on Muhammad and his progeny
- Enjoining the participants Taqwa,admonition and exhortations.
- Reciting short surah from Quran
- Also, in addition to the above issues, the following were advised to be addressed in the second sermon:
- What will be useful for all Muslims in this world and hereafter.
- The important events all over the world in favor of or disfavor of Muslims.
- Special attention should be paid to issues in the Muslim world.
- Political and economical aspects of the society and worldwide.
- Attendants must listen attentively to the sermon and avoid any action that might distract their attentions.
- The Prophet Muhammad "has forbidden a person with his knees drawn up touching his abdomen while the imam is delivering the Friday sermon."
- Jumu'ah prayer consists of two rak'ats prayer just like morning (fajr) prayer, offered immediately after Khutbah(sermon). And it is a replacement of Zuhr prayer.
- According to Shiite doctrine it is advisable(Sunnat) to recite Surah al-Jumu’ah in the first rak'at and Surah al-Munafiqun in the second rak'at, after Surah al-Hamd.
- According to Shi'ite doctrine, two qunut (raising one hands for supplication during salat) is especially recommended during salatul Jumu'ah. The first Qunut is offered in the 1st rak’at before ruku’ and the second is offered in the 2nd rak’at after rising from ruku’.
- Aslan, Rose S. "What is the significance of Friday prayers in Islam?". The Conversation. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- "Dar ul Haqq Islamic Institute – Masjed At Taqwaa". Reno Mosque. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Hussain, Musharraf." The five pillars of Islam: Laying the foundations of divine love and service to humanity. Kube Publishing Ltd, Oct 10, 2012
- Fahd Salem Bahammam. The Muslim's Prayer. Modern Guide. ISBN 9781909322950. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Hashemi, Kamran." Religious legal traditions, international human rights law and Muslim states. vol. 7. Brill, 2008
- "Maghniyyah, M. J." The Five Schools of Islamic Law: Al-hanafi. Al-hanbali, Al-ja'fari, Al-maliki, Al-shafi'i. Anssariyan, 1995
- "Al-Tusi, M. H. "A concise description of Islamic law and legal opinions." 2008
- Quran 62:9–10
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:13:51
- "Shomali, Mohammad Ali and William Skudlarek, eds." Monks and Muslims: Monastic Spirituality in Dialogue with Islam. Liturgical Press, 2012.
- Rayshahri, M. Muhammadi (2008). Scale of Wisdom: A Compendium of Shi'a Hadith: Bilingual Edition. ICAS Press.
- "Sheikh Ramzy."The Complete Guide to Islamic Prayer (Salāh). 2012
- "SW Al-Qahtani."Fortress of the Muslim: Invocations from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Dakwah Corner Bookstore 2009
- Margoliouth, G. (2003). "Sabbath (Muhammadan)". In Hastings, James (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 893–894. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4.
- Salah Jum'ah article.tebyan.net Retrieved 24 June 2018
- Namaz (Prayer) Jum'a farsi.khamenei.ir Retrieved 24 June 2018
- "Sayyid Ali Al Husaini Seestani."Islamic Laws English Version of Taudhihul Masae'l.Createspace Independent, 2014
- Rafat, Amari (2004). Islam: In Light of History. Religion Research Institute.
- Gilles Kepel (2004). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0674015753.
- Jonathan Steele (2008). Defeat: Why They Lost Iraq. I.B. Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 978-0857712004.
- Brunner, Rainer; Ende, Werner, eds. (2001). The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History (illustrated ed.). Brill. p. 178. ISBN 978-9004118034.
- Joel Rayburn (2014). Iraq after America: Strongmen, Sectarians, Resistance. Hoover Institution Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0817916947.
- "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life" (PDF). KONDA Research and Consultancy. 8 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010.
- Russ Kick; Nasrin Alavi (1 June 2007). Kick, Russ (ed.). Everything You Know About God Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Religion. Reformation Hymns: Islam, Iran, and Blogs: Red Wheel Weiser. ISBN 9781934708378.
Yet according to surveys by Iran's own Ministry of Culture and Guidance, fewer than 1.4 percent of the population actually bothers to attend Friday prayers.
- Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed (1989). Elements of Islamic Studies. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ʻAlī Nadvī, Abulḥasan (2006). The Musalman. the University of Michigan.
- "Muhammad Abdul-Rauf." Islam Creed and Worship. Islamic Center, 2008
- "Chanfi Ahmed" West African ʿulamāʾ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina. Journal of Religion in Africa 47.2 , 2018. Reference. 2018
- "Sabiq As-Sayyid" "FIQH us-SUNNAH". Indianapolis: American Trust Publishers, 1992.
- "Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari"Salatul Jumuah in the Thoughts and Words of Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari . Al-Fath Al-Mubin Publications.
- "Ilyas Ba-Yunus, Kassim Kone" Muslims in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.
- Davids, Abu Muneer. The ultimate guide to Umrah (1st ed.). Darussalam. ISBN 9789960969046.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friday prayer.|
- Photos: Shia, Sunni Muslims hold joint Friday Prayer in Marneuli, Georgia
- Practical Rulings of Salat al-Jumu’ah
- Friday (jumu'ah) Prayer