|Opera by Richard Strauss|
|Premiere||24 July 1938
Friedenstag (Peace Day) is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss, his Opus 81 and TrV 271, to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. The opera was premiered at Munich on 24 July 1938 and dedicated to Viorica Ursuleac and her husband Clemens Krauss, the lead and conductor respectively. Strauss had intended Friedenstag as part of a double-bill, to be conducted by Karl Böhm in Dresden, that would include as the second part his next collaboration with Gregor, Daphne. The opera thematically expresses anti-war sentiments, which William Mann has described as "a determined counter to the militaristic policies of Nazi Germany". These caused the work to be shelved after the outbreak of World War II.
Stefan Zweig came up with the idea of the opera, which he outlined in a letter to Strauss following up a meeting between the two at the Salzburg festival in 1934. Both Zweig and Strauss were united in their common opposition to the growing militarism and anti-Semitism of the Nazis. Strauss had hoped to work again with Stefan Zweig on a new project. However, since their previous collaboration of Die schweigsame Frau had ended in the work being banned, Strauss could not work openly with the non-Aryan Jew Zweig. While the idea for the story was from Zweig, he then suggested Gregor as a "safe" collaborator for the actual writing of the libretto. Strauss reluctantly agreed. Zweig's influence on the work nonetheless remained in its "form and dramatic substance". The libretto and draft of the opera were completed quickly, by 24 January 1936 and the orchestration six months later on 16 June.
The opera was premiered at Munich on 24 July 1938 with Clemens Krauss conducting. The opera was performed often around Germany, with Adolf Hitler and other top Nazis attending a performance in Vienna on 10 June 1939, which formed part of the celebrations of Strauss' 75th birthday.  Performances were halted soon after the start of the second world war. In May 1949, to celebrate his 85th birthday, there were simultaneous performances of the opera in Paris and Brussels, broadcast by French radio. In Germany, Friedenstag was revived in Munich in 1960 and in Dresden in 1995. Pamela Potter has performed a scholarly analysis of the pacifist and anti-war subtext of the opera. The work was given its United States premiere under the direction of Walter Ducloux at the University of Southern California in 1967. The first professional production in the US took place at the Santa Fe Opera on 28 July 1988 with a cast that included Richard Lewis, Alessandra Marc, and Mark Lundberg.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere, 24 July 1938
(cond: Clemens Krauss)
|Commandant of the beleaguered town||baritone||Hans Hotter|
|Maria, his wife||soprano||Viorica Ursuleac|
|A sergeant||bass||Georg Hann|
|A corporal||tenor||Julius Patzak|
|A private soldier||tenor||Georg Wieter|
|A musketeer||bass||Karl Schmidt|
|A bugler||bass||Willi Merkert|
|An officer||baritone||Emil Graf|
|A front-line officer||baritone||Josef Knapp|
|A Piedmontese||tenor||Peter Anders|
|The Holsteiner, commanding the besieging army||bass||Ludwig Weber|
|The burgomaster||tenor||Karl Ostertag|
|The bishop||baritone||Theo Reuter|
|A woman of the people||soprano||Else Schürhoff|
|Soldiers of the garrison and of the besieging army, elders of the town and women of the deputation to the commandant, townspeople|
- Place: The citadel of a beleaguered Catholic town in Germany under siege by Protestant troops from Holstein
- Time: 24 October 1648, the last day of the Thirty Years' War
The Sergeant of the Guard receives the watch from a private that the enemy has just set fire to a farm. A young Italian messenger from Piedmont arrives with a letter from the Emperor to the town Commandant, and then sings of his homeland. The munitions officer, a musketeer and other soldiers mockingly comment on the youth as one who has never known war, just as they have never known peace. The soldiers then hear distant noises, thinking at first that these are the enemy, but then realizing it's the townspeople approaching the fortress, The Commandant appears to address the townspeople. The Mayor and a prelate appeal to the Commandant to surrender the town, claiming that both their side and the enemy are suffering needlessly. The Commandant, however, wants only total victory and dismisses the sentiments. An officer from the front appears and informs the Commandant that the town will fall unless the ammunition under the fortress is used. The Commandant refuses to release the ammunition for combat.
The Commandment reads the letter from the Emperor to the townsfolk. The Emperor has declared that the town must hold, with no surrender. The people protest strongly, at 30 years of continuous war. The Commandant is shaken by the reaction, and orders the crowd to disperse and wait a further signal from him. He then orders his soldiers to collect the gunpowder underneath the fortress and to give him the fuse. The Commandant recalls how the Sergeant saved his life at the battle of Magdeburg, and now in turn offers the Sergeant a chance to leave the fortress. The Sergeant declines, along with the munitions officer and private. After thanking the Italian messenger, the Commandant orders his troops to work.
Maria, the Commandant's wife, enters the citadel, and remarks on the crowd and her husband. Her husband enters, noting that she has disobeyed his order to her not to enter the citadel. Their voices contrast in their duet, she tired of war, he exulting in it and saying how he plans to explode the fortress, taking all its occupants with it. Even so, the Commandant offers her the chance to flee, for her safety. Maria vows to stay at her husband's side.
A cannon shot sounds, apparently signaling an enemy attack. The sergeant hands the Commandant the fuse, but he will not use it, preferring combat. The next sound, however, is of distant bells, and other bells from the town join in. The sergeant then reports that the Holstein troops are approaching, but not to attack, rather decked with streamers, flowers and white flags. The Commandant thinks that this is a ruse. The Mayor and prelate, however, are overjoyed to see this procession, mistaking it for the Commandant's promised signal.
The Holstein commander then enters to seek the Commandant, and offers the news that the Thirty Years' War is over that very day, as an armistice has been signed. The Commandant is harsh in his acknowledgement of the Holstein commander, and insults him to the point where he draws his sword. The Holstein commander reaches for his own sword, but does not draw it. Maria then throws herself between the two military commanders, pleading for peace between them. Suddenly, the Commandant and the Holstein commander embrace. The opera concludes with a chorus of reconciliation.
Opera House and Orchestra
Vienna State Opera Orchestra and Chorus
( Recording of a performance at the Vienna State Opera, 10 June)
|Audio CD: Koch-Schwann
Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Chorus of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian Radio Choir
|Audio CD: EMI
Cat: CDC 5 56850-2
Collegiate Chorale and Orchestra; New York City Gay Men's Chorus
(Recording of a concert performance in Carnegie Hall,19 November)
|Audio CD: Koch International Classics
Dresden Staatskapelle and the Dresden State Opera Chorus
|Audio CD: DG
Cat: 463 494-2
- Franz Trenner, "Richard Strauss and Munich". Tempo (New Ser.), 69, 5-14 (1964).
- Roger Pines, "Friedenstag. Richard Strauss" (CD review). The Opera Quarterly, 15(3), 565-568 (1999).
- William Mann, "Richard Strauss's Friedenstag". Musical Times, 112(1539), 438-439 (1971).
- Norman Del Mar, Richard Strauss. A Critical commentary on his life and works, Volume 3, London: Faber and Faber (2009) (second edition), ISBN 978-0-571-25098-1, page 55.
- Roger Pines, "Friedenstag. Richard Strauss" (recording review). The Opera Quarterly, 9(3), 183-186 (1993).
- Williamson, John (August 1991). "Review of "Friedenstag and Daphne: An Interpretative Study of the Literary and Dramatic Sources of Two Operas by Richard Strauss", by Kenneth Birkin". Music & Letters. 72 (3): 493–494. doi:10.1093/ml/72.3.493. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
- Trenner, Franz. Richard Strauss Chronik, Verlag Dr Richard Strauss Gmbh, Wien, 2003. ISBN 3-901974-01-6. Pages 567 and 572.
- Trenner, page 597.
- Ian Kershaw, Hitler. Retrieved 15 May 2016
- Rollo Myers (editor), Richard Strauss and Romain Rolland, Calder and Boyars, London, 1968. Page 10.
- Pamela M. Potter, "Strauss's Friedenstag: A Pacifist Attempt at Political Resistance", The Musical Quarterly, LXIX(3), 408-424 (1983).
- Recordings of Friedenstag on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
- David McKee, "Friedenstag. Richard Strauss" (CD review). The Opera Quarterly, 19(4), 822-828 (2003).
- Amadeus Almanac, accessed 24 October 2008
- Kennedy, Michael, in Holden, Amanda (ed.) (2001), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029312-4