Friedrich Kittler

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Friedrich Kittler (2009)

Friedrich A. Kittler (June 12, 1943 – October 18, 2011) was a literary scholar and a media theorist. His works relate to media, technology, and the military.


Friedrich Adolf Kittler was born in 1943 in Rochlitz in Saxony. His family fled with him to West Germany in 1958, where from 1958 to 1963 he went to a natural sciences and modern languages Gymnasium in Lahr in the Black Forest, and thereafter, until 1972, he studied German studies, Romance philology and philosophy at the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg in Freiburg im Breisgau.

In 1976, Kittler received his doctorate in philosophy after a thesis on the poet Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. Between 1976 and 1986 he worked as academic assistant at the university's Deutsches Seminar. In 1984, he earned his Habilitation in the field of Modern German Literary History. He had several stints as a visiting assistant professor or visiting professor at universities in the United States, such as the University of California, Berkeley, the University of California, Santa Barbara, Stanford University, and the European Graduate School.[1]

From 1986 to 1990, he headed the DFG's Literature and Media Analysis project in Kassel and in 1987 he was appointed Professor of Modern German Studies at the Ruhr University. In 1993 he was appointed to the chair for Media Aesthetics and History at the Humboldt University of Berlin.

In 1993, Kittler was awarded the "Siemens Media Arts Prize" (Siemens-Medienkunstpreis) by ZKM Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or "Centre for Art and Media Technology") for his research in the field of media theory.[2]

He was recognized in 1996 as a distinguished scholar at Yale University and in 1997 as a distinguished visiting professor at Columbia University in New York. Kittler was a member of the Hermann von Helmholtz Centre for Culture and the research group Bild Schrift Zahl ("Picture Writing Number") (DFG).[3]

Among Kittler's theses was his tendency to argue, with a mixture of polemicism, apocalypticism, erudition, and humor, that technological conditions were closely bound up with epistemology and ontology itself. This claim and his style of argumention is aptly summed up in his dictum "Nur was schaltbar ist, ist überhaupt"—a phrase that could be translated as "Only that which is switchable, exists" or more freely, "Only that which can be switched, can be."[4]: 7  This phrase plays on the concept that in principle any representation can be presented according to the on/off binary logic of computing. Kittler goes one step further by suggesting that, conversely, anything that can't be "switched" can't really "be," at least under current technical conditions. He invoked this doctrine on his deathbed in 2011. Dying in a hospital in Berlin and sustained only by medical instruments, his final words were "Alle Apparate ausschalten", which translates as "switch off all apparatuses".[5]


Friedrich Kittler is influential in the new approach to media theory that grew popular starting in the 1980s, new media (German: technische Medien, which translates roughly to "technical media"). Kittler's central project is to "prove to the human sciences [...] their technological-media a priori" (Hartmut Winkler), or in his own words: "Driving the human out of the humanities",[6] a title that he gave a work that he published in 1980.

Kittler sees an autonomy in technology and therefore disagrees with Marshall McLuhan's reading of the media as "extensions of man": "Media are not pseudopods for extending the human body. They follow the logic of escalation that leaves us and written history behind it." [citation needed]

Consequently, he sees in writing literature, in writing programmes and in burning structures into silicon chips a complete continuum: "As we know and simply do not say, no human being writes anymore. [...] Today, human writing runs through inscriptions burnt into silicon by electronic lithography [...]. The last historic act of writing may thus have been in the late seventies when a team of Intel engineers [plotted] the hardware architecture of their first integrated microprocessor." (Kittler, Es gibt keine Software. In: ders.: Draculas Vermächtnis. Technische Schriften.)

And Kittler is a good friend of mine – I sponsored a chair at the Humboldt University for two years. He is not mainstream. Historians of music come and say, “But he did not write his thesis on Palestrina.” And all the professors of philosophy say, “But did he write a thesis on Kant or Heidegger?” No, Kittler is a mixture: Kittler is in between philosophy, the history of music, computer science, and media theory. That’s why he is completely outstanding. We have some fundamental heroes in Germany, really outstanding people on the level of Deleuze, Derrida, Lacan, Bataille … Among these are Bazon Brock, Friedrich Kittler, Sloterdijk, Bredekamp, or Hans Belting. These people will last longer than I will in this book. In 50 years, each of them will be known as people who had been very sensitive to changes of the media.—Hubert Burda, 2011[7]: 180–189 


  • 1977: Der Traum und die Rede. Eine Analyse der Kommunikationssituation Conrad Ferdinand Meyers. Bern-Munich
  • 1979: Dichtung als Sozialisationsspiel. Studien zu Goethe und Gottfried Keller (with Gerhard Kaiser). Göttingen
  • 1985: Aufschreibesysteme 1800/1900. Fink: Munich. ISBN 3-7705-2881-6 (English edition: Discourse Networks 1800 / 1900, with a foreword by David E. Wellbery. Stanford 1990)
  • 1986: Grammophon Film Typewriter. Berlin: Brinkmann & Bose. ISBN 3-922660-17-7 (English edition: Gramophone, Film, Typewriter, Stanford 1999)
  • 1990: Die Nacht der Substanz. Bern
  • 1991: Dichter – Mutter – Kind. Munich
  • 1993: Draculas Vermächtnis: Technische Schriften. Leipzig: Reclam. ISBN 3-379-01476-1 Essays zu den "Effekten der Sprengung des Schriftmonopols", zu den Analogmedien Schallplatte, Film und Radio sowie "technische Schriften, die numerisch oder algebraisch verfasst sind".
  • 1997: Literature, Media, Information Systems: Essays (published by John Johnston). Amsterdam
  • 1998: Hardware das unbekannte Wesen
  • 1998: Zur Theoriegeschichte von Information Warfare
  • 1999: Hebbels Einbildungskraft – die dunkle Natur. Frankfurt, New York, Vienna
  • 2000: Eine Kulturgeschichte der Kulturwissenschaft. München
  • 2000: Nietzsche – Politik des Eigennamens: wie man abschafft, wovon man spricht (with Jacques Derrida). Berlin.
  • 2001: Vom Griechenland (with Cornelia Vismann; Internationaler Merve Diskurs Bd.240). Merve: Berlin. ISBN 3-88396-173-6
  • 2002: Optische Medien. Merve: Berlin. ISBN 3-88396-183-3 (English edition: Optical Media, with an introduction by John Durham Peters. Polity Press 2010)
  • 2002: Zwischen Rauschen und Offenbarung. Zur Kultur- und Mediengeschichte der Stimme (as publisher). Akademie Verlag, Berlin
  • 2004: Unsterbliche. Nachrufe, Erinnerungen, Geistergespräche. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Paderborn.
  • 2006: Musik und Mathematik. Band 1: Hellas, Teil 1: Aphrodite. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Paderborn.
  • 2009: Musik und Mathematik. Band 1: Hellas, Teil 2: Eros. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Paderborn.
  • 2011: Das Nahen der Götter vorbereiten. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn.
  • 2013: Die Wahrheit der technischen Welt. Essays zur Genealogie der Gegenwart, Suhrkamp, Berlin. (English edition: The truth of the technological world: essays on the genealogy of presence, translated by Erik Butler, with an afterword by Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht. Stanford 2013.)
  • 2013: Philosophien der Literatur. Merve, Berlin.
  • 2013: Die Flaschenpost an die Zukunft. With Till Nikolaus von Heiseler, Kulturverlag Kadmos, Berlin.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Friedrich Kittler Former Professor of Media Philosophy at The European Graduate School.
  2. ^ Siemens Medienkunstpreis 1993/ Friedrich Kittle Archived 2016-10-28 at the Wayback Machine ZKM. Museum für Neue Kunst.
  3. ^ Kraft, J. M., & Tölölyan, K., "Approaches in Teaching Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 and Other Works", in Thomas H. Schaub, ed., Pynchon Notes—issues 54-55 (2008), p. 301.
  4. ^ Cruz, M. T., ed., Media Theory and Cultural Technologies: In Memoriam Friedrich Kittler (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017), p. 4.
  5. ^ London Review of Books article.
  6. ^ This loses something in the translation, since "spirit" is "Geist" in German, and "humanities" is "Geisteswissenschaften", or "spiritual sciences".
  7. ^ Woodard, D., "In Media Res," 032c, Sum 2011, pp. 180–189.

Further reading[edit]

Secondary literature on Friedrich Kittler
  • Frank Hartmann: Friedrich Kittler. In: Information Philosophie 25 (1997) 4, S. 40–44.
  • Josef Wallmannsverger: Friedrich Kittler. In: Helmut Schanze (publisher): Metzler Lexikon Medientheorie/ Medienwissenschaft, S. 162 f. Stuttgart 2002.
  • Geoffrey Winthrop-Young: Friedrich Kittler zur Einführung, Hamburg: Junius Verlag 2005.
  • Geoffrey Winthrop-Young: Kittler and the Media. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2011.

External links[edit]