By 1630, many Arminians had already returned to the Netherlands. In 1633-1637 Frederick III sent an embassy to Tsar Michael I of Russia and to Shah Safi of Persia with a view to setting up Friedrichstadt as a European trade terminus. The delegation was led by the jurisconsultPhilip Crusius, jurisconsult, and the merchant Otto Bruggemann or Brugman, of which their secretary - the scholar Adam Olearius - later wrote a book. However, the aim of creating a regular trading route that would not pass around Africa was not achieved, and the delegation proved fruitless. Altogether, the city of Friedrichstadt did not become as successful as anticipated.