|Alternative names||Chips, finger chips, fries, frites, hot chips, steak fries|
|Course||Side dish or snack, rarely as a main dish|
|Place of origin||Belgium or France (disputed)|
|Region or state||Western Europe|
|Variations||Curly fries, shoestring fries, steak fries, sweet potato fries, Chili cheese fries, poutine|
|Other information||Often served with salt and a side of ketchup, mayonnaise, vinegar, barbecue sauce, or other sauce|
French fries (North American English), chips (British English), finger chips (Indian English), French-fried potatoes, or simply fries are batonnet or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes, originating from either Belgium or France. They are prepared by cutting the potato into even strips, then drying and frying it, usually in a deep fryer. Most french fries are produced from frozen Russet potatoes. Experts have criticized french fries for being very unhealthy.
French fries are served hot, either soft or crispy, and are generally eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, and they commonly appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants, pubs, and bars. They are often salted and may be served with ketchup, vinegar, mayonnaise, tomato sauce, or other local specialties. Fries can be topped more heavily, as in the dishes of poutine or chili cheese fries. Chips can be made from sweet potatoes instead of potatoes. A baked variant, oven chips, uses less oil or no oil.
French fries are prepared by first cutting the potato (peeled or unpeeled) into even strips, which are then wiped off or soaked in cold water to remove the surface starch, and thoroughly dried. They may then be fried in one or two stages. Chefs generally agree that the two-bath technique produces better results. Potatoes fresh out of the ground can have too high a water content—resulting in soggy fries—so preference is for those that have been stored for a while.
In the two-stage or two-bath method, the first bath, sometimes called blanching, is in hot fat (around 160 °C/320 °F) to cook them through. This step can be done in advance. Then they are more briefly fried in very hot fat (190 °C/375 °F) to crisp the exterior. They are then placed in a colander or on a cloth to drain, salted, and served. The exact times of the two baths depend on the size of the potatoes. For example, for 2–3 mm strips, the first bath takes about 3 minutes, and the second bath takes only seconds. One can cook french fries using several techniques. Deep frying submerges food in hot fat, most commonly oil. Vacuum fryers produce potato chips with lower oil content, while maintaining their color and texture. In the UK, a chip pan is a deep-sided cooking pan that can be used for deep-frying.
Most french fries are produced from frozen potatoes which have been blanched or at least air-dried industrially. Most chains that sell fresh cut fries use the Idaho Russet Burbank variety of potatoes. It has been the standard for french fries in the United States. The usual fat for making french fries is vegetable oil. In the past, beef suet was recommended as superior, with vegetable shortening as an alternative. In fact, McDonald's used a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil until 1990, when they switched to vegetable oil with beef flavoring. Starting in the 1960s, more fast food restaurants have been using frozen french fries.
Chemical and physical changes
French fries are fried in a two-step process: the first time is to cook the starch throughout the entire cut at low heat, and the second time is to create the golden crispy exterior of the fry at a higher temperature. This is necessary because if the potato cuts are only fried once, the temperature would either be too hot, causing only the exterior to be cooked and not the inside, or not hot enough where the entire fry is cooked, but its crispy exterior will not develop. Although the potato cuts may be baked or steamed as a preparation method, this section will only focus on french fries made using frying oil. During the initial frying process (approximately 150 °C), water on the surface of the cuts evaporates off the surface and the water inside the cuts gets absorbed by the starch granules, causing them to swell and produce the fluffy interior of the fry. The starch granules are able to retain the water and expand due to gelatinization. The water and heat break the glycosidic linkages between amylopectin and amylose strands, allowing a new gel matrix to form via hydrogen bonds which aid in water retention. The moisture that gets trapped in between the gel matrix is responsible for the fluffy interior of the fry. The gelatinized starch molecules move towards the surface of the fries "forming a thick layer of gelatinised starch" and this layer of pre-gelatinized starch will turn into the crispy exterior after the potato cuts are fried for a second time. During the second frying process (approximately 180 °C), the remaining water on the surface of the cuts will evaporate and the gelatinized starch molecules that collected towards the potato surface are cooked again, forming the crispy exterior. The golden-brown color of the fry will develop when the amino acids and glucose on the exterior participate in a Maillard browning reaction.
In the United States and most of Canada, the term french fries, sometimes capitalized as French fries, or shortened to fries, refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes. Variants in shape and size may have names such as curly fries, shoestring fries, etc. In the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa, Ireland and New Zealand, the term chips is generally used instead, though thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called french fries or skinny fries, to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker. In the US or Canada these more thickly-cut chips might be called steak fries, depending on the shape. The word chips is more often used in North America to refer to potato chips, known in the UK and Ireland as crisps.
Thomas Jefferson had "potatoes served in the French manner" at a White House dinner in 1802. The expression "french fried potatoes" first occurred in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: "French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, and a little salt; fry both sides of a light golden brown colour; drain." This account referred to thin, shallow-fried slices of potato (French cut) – it is not clear where or when the now familiar deep-fried batons or fingers of potato were first prepared. In the early 20th century, the term "french fried" was being used in the sense of "deep-fried" for foods like onion rings or chicken.
By country or region
Belgium and the Netherlands
The French and Belgians have an ongoing dispute about where fries were invented, with both countries claiming ownership. From the Belgian standpoint the popularity of the term "french fries" is explained as a "French gastronomic hegemony" into which the cuisine of Belgium was assimilated because of a lack of understanding coupled with a shared language and geographic proximity of the countries.
Belgian journalist Jo Gérard claims that a 1781 family manuscript recounts that potatoes were deep-fried prior to 1680 in the Meuse valley, in what was then the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium): "The inhabitants of Namur, Andenne, and Dinant had the custom of fishing in the Meuse for small fish and frying, especially among the poor, but when the river was frozen and fishing became hazardous, they cut potatoes in the form of small fish and put them in a fryer like those here." Gérard has not produced the manuscript that supports this claim due to the fact that it is unrelated to the later history of the French fry, as the potato did not arrive in the region until around 1735. Also, given 18th century economic conditions: "It is absolutely unthinkable that a peasant could have dedicated large quantities of fat for cooking potatoes. At most they were sautéed in a pan ...".
"French fries" for deep fried potato batons were also introduced when American soldiers arrived in Belgium during World War I. The Belgians had previously been catering to the British soldiers' love of chips and continued to serve them to the Americans when they took over the western end of the front. The Americans took them to be French fried potatoes because they believed themselves to be in France, with French being the local language and the official language of the Belgian Army at that time. At that time, the term "French fries" was growing in popularity – the term was already used in the United States as early as 1899 – although it isn't clear whether this referred to batons (chips) or slices of potato e.g. in an item in Good Housekeeping which specifically references "Kitchen Economy in France": "The perfection of French fries is due chiefly to the fact that plenty of fat is used".
"Pommes frites" or just "frites" (French), "frieten" (a word used in Flanders and the southern provinces of the Netherlands) or "patat" (used in the north and central parts of the Netherlands) became the national snack and a substantial part of several national dishes, such as Moules-frites or Steak-frites. Fries are very popular in Belgium, where they are known as frieten (in Dutch) or frites (in French), and the Netherlands, where among the working classes they are known as patat in the north and, in the south, friet(en). In Belgium, fries are sold in shops called friteries (French), frietkot/frituur (Belgian Dutch), snackbar (Dutch in The Netherlands) or Fritüre/Frittüre (German). They are served with a large variety of Belgian sauces and eaten either on their own or with other snacks. Traditionally fries are served in a cornet de frites (French), patatzak /frietzak/fritzak (Dutch/Flemish), or Frittentüte (German), a white cardboard cone, then wrapped in paper, with a spoonful of sauce (often mayonnaise) on top.
Friteries and other fast food establishments tend to offer a number of different sauces for the fries and meats. In addition to ketchup and mayonnaise, popular options include: aioli, sauce andalouse, sauce Americaine, joppiesaus, Bicky Dressing (Gele Bicky-sauce), curry mayonnaise, mammoet-sauce, peanut sauce, samurai sauce, sauce "Pickles", pepper-sauce, tartar sauce, zigeuner sauce, and à la zingara.
In Spain, fried potatoes are called patatas fritas or papas fritas. Another common form, involving larger irregular cuts, is patatas bravas. The potatoes are cut into big chunks, partially boiled and then fried. They are usually seasoned with a spicy tomato sauce, and the dish is one of the most preferred tapas by Spaniards. Fries may have been invented in Spain, the first European country in which the potato appeared from the New World colonies, and assume fries' first appearance to have been as an accompaniment to fish dishes in Galicia, from which it spread to the rest of the country and then further away, to the Spanish Netherlands, which became Belgium more than a century later. Professor Paul Ilegems, curator of the Frietmuseum in Bruges, Belgium, believes that Saint Teresa of Ávila of Spain cooked the first french fries, and refers also to the tradition of frying in Mediterranean cuisine as evidence.
In France and other French-speaking countries, fried potatoes are formally pommes de terre frites, but more commonly pommes frites, patates frites, or simply frites. The words aiguillettes ("needle-ettes") or allumettes ("matchsticks") are used when the french fries are very small and thin. One enduring origin story holds that french fries were invented by street vendors on the Pont Neuf bridge in Paris in 1789, just before the outbreak of the French Revolution. However, a reference exists in France from 1775 to "a few pieces of fried potato" and to "fried potatoes".
Eating potatoes for sustenance was promoted in France by Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, but he did not mention fried potatoes in particular. A note in a manuscript in U.S. president Thomas Jefferson's hand (circa 1801–1809) mentions "Pommes de terre frites à cru, en petites tranches" ("Potatoes deep-fried while raw, in small slices"). The recipe almost certainly comes from his French chef, Honoré Julien. The thick-cut fries are called Pommes Pont-Neuf  or simply pommes frites (about 10 mm); thinner variants are pommes allumettes (matchstick potatoes; about 7 mm), and pommes paille (potato straws; 3–4 mm). (Roughly 0.4, 0.3 and 0.15 inch respectively.) Pommes gaufrettes are waffle fries. A popular dish in France is steak frites, which is steak accompanied by thin french fries.
The town of Florenceville-Bristol, New Brunswick, headquarters of McCain Foods, calls itself "the French fry capital of the world" and also hosts a museum about potatoes called "Potato World". It is also one of the world's largest manufacturers of frozen french fries and other potato specialties.
French fries are the main ingredient in the Canadian/Québécois dish known (in both Canadian English and Canadian French) as poutine, a dish consisting of fried potatoes covered with cheese curds and brown gravy. Poutine has a growing number of variations, but it is generally considered to have been developed in rural Québec sometime in the 1950s, although precisely where in the province it first appeared is a matter of contention. Canada is also responsible for providing 22% of China's french fries.
Germany and Austria
French fries migrated to the German-speaking countries during the 19th century. In Germany, they are usually known by the French words pommes frites, or only Pommes or Fritten (derived from the French words, but pronounced as German words). Often served with ketchup or mayonnaise, they are popular as a side dish in restaurants, or as a street-food snack purchased at an Imbissstand (snack stand). Since the 1950s, currywurst has become a widely-popular dish that is commonly offered with fries. Currywurst is a sausage (often bratwurst or bockwurst) in a spiced ketchup-based sauce, dusted with curry powder.
Whilst eating 'regular' crispy french fries is common in South Africa, a regional favorite, particularly in Cape Town, is a soft soggy version doused in white vinegar called "slap-chips" (pronounced "slup-chips" in English or "slaptjips" in Afrikaans). These chips are typically thicker and fried at a lower temperature for a longer period of time than regular french fries. Slap-chips are an important component of a Gatsby sandwich, also a common Cape Town delicacy. Slap-chips are also commonly served with deep fried fish which are also served with the same white vinegar.
United Kingdom and Ireland
The standard deep-fried cut potatoes in the United Kingdom are called chips, and are cut into pieces between 10 and 15 mm (0.39 and 0.59 in) wide. They are occasionally made from unpeeled potatoes (skins showing). British chips are not the same thing as potato chips (an American term); those are called "crisps" in Britain. In the UK, chips are part of the popular, and now international, fast food dish fish and chips. In the UK, chips are considered a separate item to french fries. Chips are a thicker cut than french fries, they are generally cooked only once and at a lower temperature.
The first commercially available chips in the UK were sold by Mrs. 'Granny' Duce in one of the West Riding towns in 1854. A blue plaque in Oldham marks the origin of the fish-and-chip shop, and thus the start of the fast food industry in Britain. In Scotland, chips were first sold in Dundee: "in the 1870s, that glory of British gastronomy – the chip – was first sold by Belgian immigrant Edward De Gernier in the city's Greenmarket". In Ireland the first chip shop was "opened by Giuseppe Cervi", an Italian immigrant, "who arrived there in the 1880s". It is estimated that in the UK, 80% of households buy frozen chips each year.
Although french fries were a popular dish in most British Commonwealth countries, the "thin style" french fries have been popularized worldwide in large part by the large American fast food chains such as McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's. In the United States, the J. R. Simplot Company is credited with successfully commercializing french fries in frozen form during the 1940s. Subsequently, in 1967, Ray Kroc of McDonald's contracted the Simplot company to supply them with frozen fries, replacing fresh-cut potatoes. In 2004, 29% of the United States' potato crop was used to make frozen fries – 90% consumed by the food services sector and 10% by retail. The United States is also known for supplying China with most of their french fries as 70% of China's french fries are imported.
Pre-made french fries have been available for home cooking since the 1960s, having been pre-fried (or sometimes baked), frozen and placed in a sealed plastic bag. Some fast-food chains dip the fries in a sugar solution or a starch batter, to alter the appearance or texture. French fries are one of the most popular dishes in the United States, commonly being served as a side dish to entrees and being seen in fast food restaurants. The average American eats around 30 pounds of french fries a year.
Fried potato (フライドポテト, Furaido poteto) is a standard fast food side dish in Japan. Inspired by Japanese cuisine, okonomiyaki fries are served with a topping of unagi sauce, mayonnaise, katsuobushi, nori seasoning (furikake) and stir-fried cabbage.
French fries come in multiple variations and toppings. Some examples include:
- Carne asada fries – fries covered with carne asada, guacamole, sour cream and cheese.
- Cheese fries – fries covered with cheese.
- Chili cheese fries – fries covered with chili and cheese.
- Crinkle-cut fries – also known as "wavy fries", these are cut in a corrugated, ridged fashion.
- Curly fries – characterized by their helical shape, cut from whole potatoes using a specialized spiral slicer.
- Curry chips – fries covered in curry sauce.
- Dirty fries – fries covered in melted cheese with various toppings such as bacon, pulled pork, chili or gravy.
- French fry sandwich – such as the chip butty and the Mitraillette.
- Kimchi fries - fries topped with caramelized baechu-kimchi and green onions 
- Oven fries – fries that are cooked in the oven as a final step in the preparation.
- Potato wedges – Thick-cut, elongated wedge-shaped fries with the skin left on.
- Poutine – a dish consisting of fries topped with cheese curds and gravy and principally associated with the Canadian province of Québec.
- Shoestring fries – thin-cut fries.
- Steak fries – thick-cut fries.
- Sweet potato fries – fries made with sweet potatoes instead of traditional white potatoes.
- Tornado fries – spiral-cut potatoes that are placed on a skewer and then deep fried.
- Triple-cooked chips — fries that are simmered, cooled and drained using a low-temp-long-time (LTLT) cooking technique; they are then deep fried at just 130 °C, cooled and finally deep fried at 180 °C.
- Waffle fries – lattice-shaped fries obtained by quarter-turning the potato before each next slide over a grater and deep-frying just once.
Chili cheese fries
Fries tend to be served with a variety of accompaniments, such as salt and vinegar (malt, balsamic or white), pepper, Cajun seasoning, grated cheese, melted cheese, mushy peas, heated curry sauce, curry ketchup, hot sauce, relish, mustard, mayonnaise, bearnaise sauce, tartar sauce, chili, tzatziki, feta cheese, garlic sauce, fry sauce, butter, sour cream, ranch dressing, barbecue sauce, gravy, honey, aioli, brown sauce, ketchup, lemon juice, piccalilli, pickled cucumber, pickled gherkins, pickled onions or pickled eggs. In Australia, a popular flavouring added to chips is chicken salt.
French fries primarily contain carbohydrates (mostly in the form of starch) and protein from the potato, and fat absorbed during the deep-frying process. Salt, which contains sodium, is almost always applied as a surface seasoning. For example, a large serving of french fries at McDonald's in the United States is 154 grams and includes 350 mg of sodium. The 510 calories come from 66 g of carbohydrates, 24 g of fat and 7 g of protein.
Experts have criticized french fries for being very unhealthy. According to Jonathan Bonnet in a TIME magazine article, "fries are nutritionally unrecognizable from a spud" because they "involve frying, salting, and removing one of the healthiest parts of the potato: the skin, where many of the nutrients and fiber are found." Kristin Kirkpatrick, RD, calls french fries "... an extremely starchy vegetable dipped in a fryer that then loads on the unhealthy fat, and what you have left is a food that has no nutritional redeeming value in it at all." David Katz states that "French fries are often the super-fatty side dish to a burger—and both are often used as vehicles for things like sugar-laced ketchup and fatty mayo."
Frying french fries in beef tallow, lard, or other animal fats adds saturated fat to the diet. Replacing animal fats with tropical vegetable oils, such as palm oil, simply substitutes one saturated fat for another. For many years partially hydrogenated vegetable oils were used as a means of avoiding cholesterol and reducing saturated fatty acid content, but in time the trans fat content of these oils was perceived as contributing to cardiovascular disease. Starting in 2008, many restaurant chains and manufacturers of pre-cooked frozen french fries for home reheating phased out trans fat containing vegetable oils.
French fries contain some of the highest levels of acrylamides of any foodstuff, and experts have raised concerns about the effects of acrylamides on human health. According to the American Cancer Society, it is not clear as of 2013[update] whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer. A meta-analysis indicated that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers, but could not exclude a modest association for kidney, endometrial or ovarian cancers. A lower-fat method for producing a French fry-like product is to coat "Frenched" or wedge potatoes in oil and spices/flavoring before baking them. The temperature will be lower compared to deep frying, which reduces acrylamide formation.
In June 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with the advisement of a federal district judge from Beaumont, Texas, classified batter-coated french fries as a vegetable under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. This was primarily for trade reasons; french fries do not meet the standard to be listed as a processed food. This classification, referred to as the "French fry rule", was upheld in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit case Fleming Companies, Inc. v. USDA.
- "chip: definition of chip in Oxford dictionary (British English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Indian English, "finger chip". Cambridge Dictionary Online.
- Taihua Mu, Hongnan Sun, Xingli Liu, Potato Staple Food Processing Technology, p. 14, Springer, 2016 ISBN 9811028338.
- "Chunky oven chips". BBC Good Food. BBC. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Saint-Ange, Evelyn and Aratow, Paul (translator) (2005) . La Bonne Cuisine de Madame E. Saint-Ange: The Essential Companion for Authentic French Cooking. Larousse, translation Ten Speed Press. p. 553. ISBN 978-1-58008-605-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Fannie Farmer, The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, 1896, s.v.
- Blumenthal, Heston (17 April 2012). "How to cook perfect spuds". the age. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Bocuse, Paul (10 December 1998). La Cuisine du marché (in French). Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 978-2-08-202518-8.
- "Russet Burbank". idahopotato.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Amber, Fariha (17 August 2021). "Top tips for making the perfect fries". The Daily Star. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Garayo, Jagoba; Moreira, Rosana (1 November 2002). "Vacuum frying of potato chips". Journal of Food Engineering. 55 (2): 181–191. doi:10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00062-6. ISSN 0260-8774.
- "Fire warning over chip pans". ITV News. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- "The Making of French Fries". thespruce.com. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of All-American Meal. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-97789-4
- Grace, Francie (5 June 2002). "McDonald's Settles Beef Over Fries". CBS News. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Mal, Julie (26 October 2019). "Science of making perfect fries". Food Crumbles.
- Kaushik, Nitisha (11 July 2019). "Ultimate Guide to Crispy French Fries". The Countertop Cook.
- Lingle, B. (2016). Fries!: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Favorite Food. Chronicle Books. pp. 50–53. ISBN 978-1-61689-504-4. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Chips, fries or crisps? Netizens debate over names given to different types of potato chips". The Indian Express. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Ebeling, Charles (31 October 2005). "French fried: From Monticello to the Moon, A Social, Political and Cultural Appreciation of the French Fry". The Chicago Literary Club. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
- Fishwick, Marshall W (1998). "The Savant as Gourmet". The Journal of Popular Culture. 32 (part 1): 51–58. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_51.x.
- Home: Oxford English Dictionary. Oed.com. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
Mackenzie, Catherine (7 April 1935). "Food the City Likes Best". The New York Times Magazine: SM18. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
... the chef at the Rainbow Room launches into a description of his special steak, its French-fried onion rings, its button mushrooms ...
Rorer, Sarah Tyson (c. 1902). "Page 211". Mrs. Rorer's New Cook Book. Philadelphia: Arnold & Company. p. 211. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
French Fried Chicken
- Gregory, Vanessa (5 November 2009). "Tastes of Newly Fashionable Valparaíso, Chile". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Mishan, Ligaya (18 July 2019). "Peruvian, Fortifying and Frank, at Warique in Queens". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Schehr, Lawrence R.; Weiss, Allen S. (2001). French Food: On the Table On the Page and in French Culture. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-0415936286.
- (in French) Hugues Henry (16 August 2001) "La Frite est-elle belge?" (in French). Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2012.. Frites.be. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Ilegems, Paul (1993). De Frietkotcultuur (in Dutch). Loempia. ISBN 978-90-6771-325-2.
- Leclercq, Pierre (2 February 2010). La véritable histoire de la pomme de terre frite, musee-gourmandise.be, mentioning the work of Fernand Pirotte on the history of the potato
- McDonald, George (2007). Frommer's Belgium, Holland & Luxembourg. Wiley Publishing. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-470-06859-5.
- Handy, Mrs. Moses P. "Kitchen Economy in France", Good Housekeeping, Volumes 28–29 159 Vol XXIX No 1 July 1899 Whole No 249. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Schehr, Lawrence R.; Weiss, Allen S. (2001). French Food: On the Table On the Page and in French Culture. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 158–9. ISBN 978-0415936286.
- See this map indicating where patat/friet/frieten is used in the Low Countries
- (in Dutch) Patatzak vouwen – Video – Allerhande – Albert Heijn. Ah.nl. Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
- "La Frite se mange-t-elle à toutes les sauces?" (in French). Frites.be. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Patatas Bravas". spanish-food.org. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Saint Teresa". aleteia.org. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "La frite est-elle Belge ou Française ?". Le Monde (in French). 2 January 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Le Moyne Des Essarts, Nicolas-Toussaint (1775). Causes célebres curieuses et interessantes, de toutes les cours ..., Volume 5, p. 41 and P. 159. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- N.B. museum celebrates the humble spud | The Chronicle Herald. Thechronicleherald.ca (19 September 2014). Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
- About McCain Foods – Global Family Owned Food Business. Mccain.com (31 December 1989). Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
- Semenak, Susan (6 February 2015). "Backstage at La Banquise – because it's always poutine week there". Montreal Gazette.
- Sekules, Kate (23 May 2007). "A Staple From Quebec, Embarrassing but Adored". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2008. Article on Poutine coming to New York City
- Kane, Marion (8 November 2008). "The war of the curds". The Star. Retrieved 16 December 2001.
- "Canada's Imports". frozenfoodsbiz.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Potato Imports to China Report". Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Erste Runde – Pommes frites", Atlas zur deutschen Alltagssprache (AdA), Phil.-Hist. Fakultät, Universität Augsburg, 10. November 2005
- Currywurst – die Erfindung: Nur ohne ist sie das Original Archived 28 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Slap Chips - a Cape Town favourite". www.capetownetc.com. 19 February 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Top tips for making the perfect fries". Food24. 1 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Dall, Nick (8 September 2017). "Why South Africans Go Mad for These Soggy Fries". OZY. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food, p. 180, Oxford University Press, 2014 ISBN 0199677336.
- Brian Yarvin, The Ploughman's Lunch and the Miser's Feast, p. 83, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012 ISBN 1558324135.
- Mcalpine, Fraser. "Fries or chips? What is the Difference Between French Fries and British Chips?". BBC America. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- Ude, Louis (1822) The French Cook. J. Ebers
- Warren, Eliza (c. 1859). The economical cookery book for housewives, cooks, and maids-of-all-work, with hints to the mistress and servant. London: Piper, Stephenson, and Spence. p. 88. OCLC 27869877.
French Fried Potatoes
- Chaloner, W. H.; Henderson, W. O. (1990). Industry and Innovation: Selected Essays. Taylor & Francis ISBN 0714633356.
- "Blue Plaques". www.oldham.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
John Lees – originator of fish and chips. Market Hall, Albion Street, Oldham.
- "Dundee Fact File". Dundee City Council. Archived from the original on 8 April 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
- "A postcard, Giuseppe Cervi and the story of the Dublin chipper". Come Here To Me!. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Top Chip Facts". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Lovechips.co.uk. 27 February 2011
- "Popularization". today.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Frozen Potato Fries Situation and Outlook". Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "China's US importation". forbes.com. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Pre-Made Fries". historyoffastfood.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- Nast, Condé (25 February 2001). "The Trouble with Fries". The New Yorker. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- "Amount of French Fries". foxnews.com. 22 November 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "The best-tasting French fries in Japan are…". Japan Today.
- "Okonomiyaki fries". Potatoes USA.
- Allen Borgen (25 December 2008). "Stop at Picante and say, 'Fill 'er up!'". San Bernardino Sun. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
Maria Desiderata Montana (18 September 2012). Food Lovers' Guide to® San Diego: The Best Restaurants, Markets & Local Culinary Offerings. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7627-8904-7.
- "5 to Try: Cheese fries". Commercial Appeal. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Zorn, Marc (18 August 2014). "Who Invented Chili Cheese Fries - Vision Launch". Vision Launch. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Walker, Kylie (12 February 2019). "Have you discovered the glory of curry chips?". SBS. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Kirwin, Ellen: Liverpool's best dirty fries, cheesy chips and downright filthy food, Liverpool Echo 8 March 2017. Accessed on 13 May 2021.
- The U.S. Open is selling a delicious sandwich with french fries on it | For The Win. Ftw.usatoday.com (17 June 2016). Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
- "Kimchi Fries".
- "kimchi fries".
- "How to Make Kimchi Fries".
- "Oven Fries Recipe". NYT Cooking. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- "'Protect our poutine': Quebec dairy group looks to give gooey dish official status". Saanich News. 19 May 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Severson, Kim (25 November 2010). "Sweet Potatoes Step Out From Under Marshmallows". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Dubecki, Larissa (26 July 2016). "The quest for the 'Perfect Chip'". Good Food. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- List of accompaniments to french fries – Unlikely Words – A blog of Boston, Providence, and the world. Unlikely Words (7 November 2011). Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "McDonald's Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items" (PDF). nutrition.mcdonalds.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2011.
- Fried Potatoes and Acrylamide: Are French Fries Bad For You?. Time.com (11 June 2015). Retrieved on 13 November 2016.
- "Health Risks". forbes.com. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "McDonalds Trans fats". reuters.com. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Burger King Trans fats". Nbcnews.com. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 1 October 2013.
- Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Galeone C, La Vecchia C (2015). "Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis". Int. J. Cancer. 136 (12): 2912–22. doi:10.1002/ijc.29339. PMID 25403648. S2CID 26689375.
- "Eat Fries—Guilt-Free!". Prevention. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "Country of Origin Labelling: Frequently Asked Questions". Agricultural Marketing Service. 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009.
- Dreyfuss, Ira (16 June 2004). "Batter-Coated Frozen French Fries Called Fresh Vegetable". The Washington Post.
- "AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AGREEMENT ACT - vol63_at_958.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- "04-40802: Fleming Companies v. Dept of Agriculture :: Fifth Circuit :: US Court of Appeals Cases :: Justia". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Lingle, Blake (2016). Fries!: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Favorite Food. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 9781616894580.
- Tebben, Maryann (2006). "French Fries: France's Culinary Identity from Brillat-Savarin to Barthes (essay)". Convivium Artium. University of Texas at San Antonio. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- The dictionary definition of french fries at Wiktionary