Frithjof Schuon

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Frithjof Schuon
Frithjof Schuon.jpg
Born(1907-06-18)June 18, 1907
DiedMay 5, 1998(1998-05-05) (aged 90)
Era20th-century philosophy
Region
SchoolPerennial philosophy
Main interests
Philosophy, metaphysics, spirituality, religion, sacred studies

Frithjof Schuon (/ˈʃɒn/; German: [ˈfʀiːtˌjoːf ˈʃuː.ɔn]; 18 June 1907 – 5 May 1998), also known as ʿĪsā Nūr ad-Dīn ʾAḥmad (Arabic: عيسیٰ نور الـدّين أحمد‎) after his conversion to Islam,[1] was an author of German ancestry born in Basel, Switzerland. Schuon is widely recognized as one of the most influential scholars and teachers within the sphere of comparative religion. His religious worldview was influenced by his study of the Hindu philosophy of Advaita Vedanta and Islamic Sufism. He authored numerous books on religion and spirituality as well as being a poet and a painter.

In his prose and poetic writings, Schuon focuses on metaphysical doctrine and spiritual method. He is considered one of the main representatives and exponents of the religio perennis (perennial religion) and one of the chief representatives of the Traditionalist School. In his writings, Schuon expresses his faith in an absolute principle, God, who governs the universe. For Schuon, the great revelations are the link between this absolute principle—God—and humankind. He wrote the main bulk of his work in French. In the later years of his life, Schuon composed some volumes of poetry in his mother tongue, German. His articles in French were collected in about 20 titles in French which were later translated into English as well as many other languages. The main subjects of his prose and poetic compositions are spirituality and various essential realms of the human life coming from God and returning to God.[2]

Life and work[edit]

Schuon was born in Basel, Switzerland, on June 18, 1907. His father was a native of southern Germany, while his mother came from an Alsatian family. Schuon's father was a concert violinist and the household was one in which not only music but literary and spiritual culture were present.[3] Schuon lived in Basel and attended school there until the untimely death of his father in 1920, after which his mother returned with her two young sons to her family in nearby Mulhouse, France, where Schuon was obliged to become a French citizen. Having received his earliest training in German, he received his later education in French and thus mastered both languages early in life.[4]

From his youth, Schuon's search for metaphysical truth led him to read the Hindu scriptures such as Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita.[5] While still living in Mulhouse, he discovered the works of the French philosopher René Guénon, which served to confirm his intellectual intuitions and which provided support for the metaphysical principles he had begun to discover.[6]

Schuon journeyed to Paris after serving for a year and a half in the French army. There he worked as a textile designer and began to study Arabic in the local mosque school. Living in Paris also brought the opportunity to be exposed to various forms of traditional art to a much greater degree than before, especially the arts of Asia with which he had had a deep affinity since his youth. This period of growing intellectual and artistic familiarity with the traditional worlds was followed by Schuon's first visit to Algeria in 1932. It was then that he met Shaykh Ahmad al-Alawi and was initiated into his order.[1] Schuon has written about his deep affinity with the esoteric core of various traditions and hence appreciation for the Sufism in the Islamic tradition. His main reason for seeking the blessings of Shaykh Al-Alawi was the attachment to an orthodox master and saint.[7] On a second trip to North Africa, in 1935, he visited Algeria and Morocco; and in 1938 and 1939 he traveled to Egypt where he met Guénon, with whom he had been in correspondence for 7 years. In 1939, shortly after his arrival in Pie, India, World War II broke out, forcing him to return to Europe.[8] After having served in the French army, and having been made a prisoner by the Germans, he sought asylum in Switzerland, which was to be his home for forty years.[9] In 1949 he married, his wife being a German Swiss with a French education who, besides having interests in religion and metaphysics, was also a gifted painter.[10] Schuon received Swiss citizenship shortly after his marriage.[11]

Having received his education in France, Schuon has written all his major works in French, which began to appear in English translation in 1953.[10] Of his first book, The Transcendent Unity of Religions (London, Faber & Faber) T. S. Eliot wrote: "I have met with no more impressive work in the comparative study of Oriental and Occidental religion."[12]

While always continuing to write, Schuon and his wife traveled widely. In 1959 and again in 1963, they journeyed to the American West at the invitation of friends among the Sioux and Crow American Indians. In the company of their Native American friends, they visited various Plains tribes and had the opportunity to witness many aspects of their sacred traditions. In 1959, Schuon and his wife were solemnly adopted into the Sioux family of James Red Cloud, grandson of Red Cloud. Years later they were similarly adopted by the Crow medicine man and Sun Dance chief, Thomas Yellowtail. Schuon's writings on the central rites of Native American religion and his paintings of their ways of life attest to his particular affinity with the spiritual universe of the Plains Indians. Other travels have included journeys to Andalusia, Morocco, and a visit in 1968 to the home of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus.

Through his many books and articles, Schuon became known as a spiritual teacher and leader of the Traditionalist School. During his years in Switzerland he regularly received visits from religious scholars and thinkers of the East.[10]

Schuon throughout his entire life had great respect for and devotion to the Virgin Mary which was expressed in his writings. As a result, his teachings and paintings show a particular Marian presence. His reverence for the Virgin Mary has been studied in detail by American professor James Cutsinger.[13] Hence the name, Maryamiya (in Arabic, "Marian"), of the Sufi order he founded as a branch of the Shadhiliya-Darqawiya-Alawiya. When asked by one of his disciples about the reason for this choice of name, Schuon replied: "It is not we who have chosen her; it is she who has chosen us."[14]

In 1980, Schuon and his wife emigrated to the United States, settling in Bloomington, Indiana, where a community of disciples from all over the world would gather around him for spiritual direction. The first years in Bloomington saw the publication of some of his most important late works: From the Divine to the Human, To Have a Center, Survey of Metaphysics and Esoterism and others.

Schuon was deeply attracted to the Native American traditions. It was American anthropologist Joseph Epes Brown who through letters and journeys to Lausanne would speak of the Native Americans to Schuon and would create possibilities of exchange between Schuon and that world, exchanges that were to play an important role in the last period of the Schuon’s' life. In the autumn of 1953, Schuon and his wife met with Thomas Yellowtail in Paris. The future Sun Dance Chief was making a dance tour. In his autobiography, Schuon explained how, after Yellowtail had performed a special rite, he had a visionary dream revealing to him certain aspects of the Plain Indian symbolism. Thomas Yellowtail remained his intimate friend till his death in 1993, visiting him every year after his settlement in Bloomington. During the visits of Yellowtail, Schuon and some of his followers organized what they called “Indian Days,” involving the performance of Native American dances[15] of which some have accused him of practising ritual nudity apart from regular strictly Islamic Sufi gatherings of invocation (majalis al-dhikr).[16] These gatherings were understood by disciples as a sharing in Schuon's personal insights and realization, not as part of the initiatic method he transmitted, centered on the invocation of a Divine Name.[17]

In 1991, one of Schuon's followers accused him of "fondling" three young girls during “primordial gatherings”. A preliminary investigation was begun, but the chief prosecutor eventually concluded that there was no proof, noting that the plaintiff was of extremely dubious character and had been previously condemned for making false statements in another similar affair in California.[18] The prosecutor declared that there were no grounds for prosecution, and the local press made amends.[19] Some articles and books, including Mark Sedgwick's Against the Modern World,[20] purporting to be scholarly documents,[21] discuss this event and the related "primordial" practices of the Bloomington community in Midwestern suburban America in the late twentieth century.[22] Schuon was greatly affected, but continued to write poetry in his native German, to receive visitors and maintain a busy correspondence with followers, scholars and readers until his death in 1998.[10][23]

Views based on his written works[edit]

For Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Schuon is at once "metaphysician, theologian, traditional philosopher and logician", versed in "comparative religion", in "traditional art and civilization", as well as in "the science of man and society"; he is also known as "a critic of the modern world in not only its practical but also its philosophical and scientific aspects".[24] In his writings, Schuon's principal themes are "essential and hence universal metaphysics with its cosmological and anthropological ramifications, spirituality in the broadest sense, intrinsic morals and aesthetics, traditional principles and phenomena", religions and their esotericisms, sacred art.[25]

Doctrinal foundation[edit]

Transcendent unity of religions[edit]

The traditionalist or perennialist perspective began to be enunciated in the 1920s by the French philosopher René Guénon and, in the 1930s, by Schuon himself. Orientalist Ananda Coomaraswamy and Swiss art historian Titus Burckhardt also became prominent advocates of this point of view. Fundamentally, this doctrine is the Sanatana Dharma – the "eternal religion" – of Hinduism. It was supposedly formulated in ancient Greece, in particular, by Plato and later Neoplatonists, and in Christendom by Meister Eckhart (in the West) and Gregory Palamas (in the East). Every religion has, besides its literal meaning, an esoteric dimension, which is essential, primordial and universal. This intellectual universality is one of the hallmarks of Schuon's works, and it gives rise to insights into not only the various spiritual traditions, but also history, science and art.[26]

The dominant theme or principle of Schuon's writings was foreshadowed in his early encounter with a Black marabout who had accompanied some members of his Senegalese village to Switzerland in order to demonstrate their culture. When the young Schuon talked with him, the venerable old man drew a circle with radii on the ground and explained: God is in the center; all paths lead to Him.[27]

Metaphysics[edit]

Schuon characterizes "pure" metaphysics as 1) "essential", i.e. "independent of all religious formulation"; 2) "primordial", being "the truth that existed before all dogmatic formalism"; and 3) "universal", in that it "encompasses all intrinsically orthodox symbolism" and "can therefore be combined with any religious language".[28] For him, pure metaphysics can be summarized by the following vedantic statement, which finds its equivalent in the teachings of, for example, Plotinus, Ibn Arabi or Meister Eckhart: Brahma satyam jagan mithyā jīvo brahmaiva nāparah (Brahman is real, the world is illusory, the individual soul is not different from Brahman).[29]

The metaphysics exposited by Schuon is based on the doctrine of the non-dual Absolute (Beyond-Being) and the degrees of reality. The distinction between the Absolute and the relative corresponds for Schuon to the couple Atma/Maya. Maya is not only the cosmic illusion: from a higher standpoint, Maya is also the Infinite, the Divine Relativity or else the feminine aspect (mahashakti) of the Supreme Principle.

Said differently, being the Absolute, Beyond-Being is also the Sovereign Good (Agathon), that by its nature desires to communicate itself through the projection of Maya. The whole manifestation from the first Being (Ishvara) to matter, the lower degree of reality, is indeed the projection of the Supreme Principle (Brahman). The personal God, considered as the creative cause of the world, is only relatively Absolute, a first determination of Beyond-Being, at the summit of Maya. The Supreme Principle is not only Beyond-Being, it is also the Supreme Self (Atman).[30]

Quintessential esoterism[edit]

Every religion comprises two main aspects, "exoterism" and "esoterism".[31] This religious esoterism is qualified as "relative" by Schuon, to differentiate it from "absolute"[32] or "quintessential"[33] esoterism, which is neither limited nor totally expressed by a particular religious form.[34]

For Schuon, integral metaphysics – which starts from the distinction between ātmā and māyā (the Absolute and the relative)[34] – is the very substance of pure esoterism,[35] to which a method of realization must be added[36] because, as Professor Patrick Laude points out :

The esoteric perspective is not reducible to a conceptual understanding, since it is essentially an intellective and "existential" conformity to Reality or a spiritual and moral assimilation of the nature of things. As Frithjof Schuon has often reminded us, to know is to be. Lived esoterism is, at its apex, the wisdom in which being and knowing coincide.[37]

There is therefore continuity between exoterism and esoterism when the latter appears as the inner dimension of the former and consequently adopts its "language", and there is discontinuity when esoterism transcends all religion:[38] it is the religio perennis, the timeless, essential, primordial and universal esoterism.[39] It constitutes "the transcendent unity of religions" and is based, methodically, on one of the revelations while having as its object the one Truth common to each of them.[40]

Criticism of modernism[edit]

Summarizing Schuon's thought, Seyyed Hossein Nasr reminds us that it was in Europe, during the Renaissance, that the "modernist" or reductionist vision of the human condition and the universe took shape, before it affected the other continents a few centuries later.[41] By reducing man more and more to his rational and animal aspects to the detriment of his spiritual dimension and the purpose of earthly life,[41] modernism has influenced philosophy as much as religion, science or art.[42] According to Schuon, its main characteristics are rationalism, which denies objective knowledge, materialism, according to which only matter gives meaning to life, psychologism, which reduces the spiritual and the intellectual to the psychic,[43] skepticism, relativism, existentialism, individualism, progressivism, evolutionism, scientism and empiricism, without forgetting agnosticism and atheism.[44][45]

Regarding modern science, in spite of the scale of its discoveries on the physical plane, Schuon reproaches it for being "a totalitarian rationalism, which eliminates both Revelation and Intellect, and at the same time a totalitarian materialism, which ignores the metaphysical relativity of matter and the world; it does not know that the supra-sensible, which is beyond space and time, is the concrete principle of the world, and that it is consequently also at the origin of that contingent and changeable coagulation called 'matter'".[46] Thus, still according to Schuon, the contradiction of scientism is to "want to give an account of reality without the help of this initial science that is metaphysics, thus ignoring that only the science of the Absolute gives meaning and discipline to the science of the relative".[47] This conception of a universe which ignores as much the principle of "creative emanationism" as that of the "hierarchy of the invisible worlds" has engendered "that most typical offspring of the modern spirit", the theory of the evolution, with its corollary: the illusion of "human progress".[48][a]

Schuon's criticism extends to philosophy - "the love of wisdom" - which was originally the fact of "thinking according to the immanent Intellect and not by reason alone".[49] It "is the science of all fundamental principles". It operates with intellectual intuition - intellection - "which perceives, and not with reason alone, which concludes", hence the abyss that separates the certainty of the sage from the opinion of the modern philosopher.[50][b]

For Schuon, there are ultimately only two possibilities: "integral, spiritual civilization, implying abuses and superstitions, and fragmentary, materialistic, progressivist civilization, implying – quite provisionally – certain earthly advantages, but excluding that which constitutes the sufficient reason and final end of all human existence".[51]

Spiritual practice[edit]

Spiritual path[edit]

According to the writer Ali Lakhani, "Schuon emphasizes that the meaning of life is nothing less than the quest for [...] God, [...] for the Truth that resides within each of us; [...] it is the return to the heart-consciousness of the Divine Presence."[52] For Schuon, man is "a bridge between Earth and Heaven.[53] [...] The notion of the Absolute and the love of God constitute the very essence of his subjectivity. This subjectivity is a proof both of his immortality and of God; it is, properly speaking, a theophany."[54][c]

Schuon reminds us that religious or spiritual life offers three fundamental paths, which correspond to as many human temperaments: 1) the path of action, works, asceticism, fear (the karma-mārga or karma-yoga of Hinduism); 2) the path of love, of devotion (bhakti-mārga); and 3) the path of gnosis, of unitive contemplation (jñāna-mārga); in Sufism: makhāfah, mahabbah, ma`rifah. The first two are dualistic and exoteric,[d] and are based on revelation, whereas the path of knowledge is monistic and esoteric, and based on intellection[55] supported by revelation.[56] Just as the path of love cannot do without works and reverential fear, so the esoteric or metaphysical path cannot exclude the two other modes.[55]

According to Schuon, the path of knowledge or of gnosis, which is present at the heart of every religion, is essentially: 1) discernment between the Real and the illusory, ātmā and māyā, nirvāna and samsāra, the Absolute and the relative, God and the world; 2) concentration on the Real, and 3) intrinsinc morality, virtue.[57][58] This discernment would remain purely mental[59] in the absence of concentration on the Real through rites and prayer,[60][61] i.e. without an effective link with God, the Sovereign Good,[59] based on an authentic piety and sufficient detachment from the ego and from the world.[62] The way towards God, as Schuon points out, "always involves an inversion: from outwardness one must pass to inwardness, from multiplicity to unity, from dispersion to concentration, from egoism to detachment, from passion to serenity."[63]

The exoteric and esoteric rites of the religion practised — and of that one alone — are the basis for the spiritual method.[64][e] Prayer is its central element, for without it — and without divine grace — the heart cannot assimilate or realize what the mind has been able to grasp.[65] Schuon recalls the three modes of prayer: personal prayer in which the worshipper opens himself spontaneously and informally to God; canonical, impersonal prayer, prescribed by his tradition; and invocatory prayer or "prayer of the heart" (japa, dhikr),[66] which "is already a death and a meeting with God and places us already in Eternity; it is already something of Paradise and even, in its mysterious and 'uncreated' quintessence, something of God".[67] This form of prayer is the invocation of a divine name, a sacred formula, a mantra;[f] it reconciles the transcendence and the immanence of Truth,[68] because if, on the one hand, Truth transcends us infinitely,[69] the gnostic knows that it is also "inscribed in an eternal script in the very substance of [his] spirit";[70] God is both the highest and the deepest,[71] and the knowledge the realized being has of God is in reality the knowledge that God has of Himself through that being.[72]

Virtue[edit]

In his writings, Schuon insists that the two requirements of doctrine and method would remain inoperative without a third element: virtue,[73] since the spiritual path must necessarily integrate the three fundamental human faculties, namely intelligence (doctrine, truth, discernment), will (method, prayer, concentration) and soul (character, virtue, moral conformity).[74] For Schuon, virtue is indeed "the initial form of spiritual union; without it, our knowing and our willing are of no use to us."[75] According to him, to have a virtue

is above all to be without the fault that is contrary to it, for God created us virtuous. He created us in His image; faults are superimposed. Moreover, it is not we who possess virtue, it is virtue which possesses us. [...] Virtue is like a reverberation of the Sovereign Good, in which we participate through our nature or through our will, easily or with difficulty, but always by the grace of God.[76]

For Schuon, humility, charity and veracity, that is to say effacement of the ego, gift of self and attachment to truth, are essential virtues, corresponding moreover to the three stages of the spiritual path: purification, expansion and union.[77] The sense of our littleness, the sense of the sacred and piety are indispensable conditions for the blossoming of the virtues.[78] Summarizing the author, Professor James Cutsinger notes that perfect virtues coincide with metaphysical truths; they realize these truths existentially.[79] In other words, as Schuon points out: "truth is necessary for the perfection of virtue, just as virtue is necessary for the perfection of truth".[80]

Beauty[edit]

Although Schuon considers that the foundations of any spiritual path are truth, prayer and virtue,[g] he also insists upon the importance of a fourth element: beauty.[81] For him, the interiorization of beauty presupposes nobility of character and at the same time produces it.[82] Its function "is to actualize in the intelligent and sensitive creature the recollection of essences, and thus to open the way to the luminous Night of the one and infinite Essence".[83]

To the awareness of divine beauty must correspond not only inner beauty, that is to say virtues, but also the sense of outer beauty, whether in the contemplation of nature[84] or in artistic sensibility,[85] without forgetting the interiorizing role of a traditional home ambiance made of beauty and serenity, foreign to the whims of modernity.[86] "Beauty, whatever use man may make of it, belongs fundamentally to its Creator, Who thereby projects into the world of appearances something of His Being."[87] For Schuon, these considerations find their source and justification in the theomorphic nature of man,[88] a changeless, non-evolutive nature, contrary to what modern science may think.[89]

Sacred art[edit]

Along with Ananda Coomaraswamy and Titus Burckhardt, Frithjof Schuon reminds us that "sacred art is first of all the visible and audible form of Revelation and then also its indispensable liturgical vesture".[90] This art communicates "on the one hand, spiritual truths and, on the other hand, a celestial presence".[91] James Cutsinger emphasizes that, for Schuon, an art is sacred "not through the personal aims of the artist, but through its content, its symbolism, and its style, that is, through objective elements", which must respect the canonical rules specific to the religion of its author.[92][93] The latter, according to Martyn Amugen quoting Schuon, must be "sanctified or in a state of grace" because the language of the sacred "cannot spring simply from profane tastes, nor from genius, but must proceed essentially out of religion",[94] which "cannot be replaced, far less can it be surpassed, by human resources".[95][h] Icon painters, for example, "were monks who, before setting to work, prepared themselves by fasting, prayer, confession, and communion",[96][97][i] in order to overcome the two pitfalls that threaten every artist: "a virtuosity tending towards the outward and the superficial, and a conventionalism without intelligence and without soul".[98]

Echoing Schuonian thought, Cutsinger notes that the various forms of sacred art have as their object the "transmission of intellectual intuitions", thus conferring "a direct aid to spirituality",[92] and he notes that this art "is able to transmit simultaneously metaphysical truths, archetypal values, historical facts, spiritual states, and psychological attitudes.[99]

Evoking the transition from the Middle Ages — with its Byzantine, Romanesque and primitive Gothic arts[100] — to the Renaissance, Schuon notes that "Christian art, which formerly was sacred, symbolical, spiritual", gave way to the advent of neo-classical art, with its naturalistic and sentimental character, which only responded "to collective psychic aspirations".[101][j][102] Having broken with tradition, reports Amugen, art became "human, individualistic, and therefore arbitrary", infallible signs of decline,[103] and any desire to restore its sacred caracter must necessarily involve abandoning individualistic relativism in order to go back to its sources, which lie in the timeless and the immutable.[104][105]

Works[edit]

Essays (translated from French)[edit]

  • The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Faber & Faber, 1953; revised edition, Harper & Row, 1975; introduction by Huston Smith, Quest Books, 1984, 1993
  • Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, Faber & Faber, 1954; Perennial Books, 1969; new translation, Perennial Books, 1987; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2007
  • Gnosis: Divine Wisdom, Perennial Books, 1959, 1978; revised, Perennial Books 1990; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Language of the Self: Essays on the Perennial Philosophy, introduction by Venkataraman Raghavan, Ganesh Madras, 1959; revised and augmented, World Wisdom, 1999
  • Stations of Wisdom, John Murray, 1961; Perennial Books, 1980; new translation, World Wisdom, 1995, 2003
  • Understanding Islam, Allen & Unwin, Penguin, Unwin Hyman, Routledge, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1972, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1989, 1993; World Wisdom, 1994, 1998, 2003; new translation with selected letters, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2011
  • Light on the Ancient Worlds, Perennial Books, 1965; World Wisdom, 1984; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Treasures of Buddhism (formerly In the Tracks of Buddhism, Allen & Unwin, 1968; Unwin Hyman, 1989); World Wisdom, 1993; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2018
  • Logic and Transcendence, Harper & Row, 1975; Perennial Books, 1984; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2009
  • Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, 1990; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2019
  • Sufism, Veil and Quintessence, World Wisdom, 1981; new translation with selected letters, foreword by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, World Wisdom, 2006
  • From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2013
  • Castes and Races, Perennial Books, 1982; now included in Language of the Self, World Wisdom, 1999
  • Christianity/Islam: Perspectives on Esoteric Ecumenism, World Wisdom, 1985; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2008
  • Survey of Metaphysics and Esoterism, World Wisdom, 1986, 2000
  • In the Face of the Absolute, World Wisdom, 1989, 1994; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2014
  • The Feathered Sun: Plain Indians in Art & Philosophy, introduction by Thomas Yellowtail, World Wisdom, 1990
  • To Have a Center, World Wisdom, 1990; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2015
  • Roots of the Human Condition, introduction by Patrick Laude, World Wisdom, 1991, 2002
  • The Play of Masks, World Wisdom, 1992
  • The Transfiguration of Man, World Wisdom, 1995
  • The Eye of the Heart, foreword by Huston Smith, World Wisdom, 1997
  • Form and Substance in the Religions, World Wisdom, 2002
  • Primordial Meditation: Contemplating the Real, The Matheson Trust, 2015 (translated from the German)

Poetry[edit]

written in English[edit]

  • The Garland, Abodes, 1994
  • Road to the Heart, World Wisdom, 1995

translated from German[edit]

  • Adastra & Stella Maris, foreword by William Stoddart, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2003
  • Songs Without Names, Vol. I-VI, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Songs Without Names, Vol. VII-XII, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • World Wheel, Vol. I-III, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • World Wheel, Vol. IV-VII, introduction by William Stoddart, foreword by Annemarie Schimmel, World Wisdom, 2006
  • Autumn Leaves & The Ring, introduction by Patrick Laude, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2010

written in German (no translation)[edit]

  • Sulamith, Urs Graf, 1947
  • Tage- und Nächtebuch, Urs Graf, 1947
  • Liebe / Leben / Glück / Sinn, 4 vol., Herder, 1997

Paintings[edit]

  • The Feathered Sun: Plain Indians in Art & Philosophy, introduction by Thomas Yellowtail, World Wisdom, 1990
  • Images of Primordial & Mystic Beauty: Paintings by Frithjof Schuon, Abodes/World Wisdom, 1992

Anthologies of Schuon’s writings[edit]

  • The Essential Frithjof Schuon, selected and edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr (formerly The Essential Writings of Frithjof Schuon, Amity House, 1986; Element Books, 1991), World Wisdom, 2005
  • Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 1992; new translation with selected letters, World Wisdom, 2012
  • Songs for a Spiritual Traveler, selected poems, bilingual, World Wisdom, 2002
  • The Fullness of God: Frithjof Schuon on Christianity, edited by James Cutsinger, foreword by Antoine Faivre, World Wisdom, 2004
  • Prayer Fashions Man: Frithjof Schuon on the Spiritual Life, edited by James Cutsinger, World Wisdom, 2004
  • Art from the Sacred to the Profane: East and West, ed. Catherine Schuon, foreword by Keith Critchlow, World Wisdom, 2007
  • Splendor of the true: a Frithjof Schuon reader, edited by James S. Cutsinger, foreword by Huston Smith, State University of New York Press, 2013 [7]

Schuon was a frequent contributor to the quarterly journal Studies in Comparative Religion (along with Guénon, Coomaraswamy, Burckhardt, Nasr, Lings, and many others) which dealt with religious symbolism and the Traditionalist perspective.

Further reading[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Amugen, Martyn (2016). Schuon's Theory of the Transcendent Unity of Religion in Relation to the Decline of the Sacred: An Analysis from a Mystical Perspective, Bangkok, Lap Lambert, Academic Publishing [8]
  • Aymard, Jean-Baptiste & Laude, Patrick (2004). Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press [9] [10]
  • Cutsinger, James S. (1997). Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press, 2012
  • Fitzgerald, Michael O. (2010). Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom
  • Laude, Patrick (2010). Pathways to an Inner Islam: Massignon, Corbin, Guénon, and Schuon, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press
  • Laude, Patrick (2020). Keys to the Beyond: Frithjof Schuon's Cross-Traditional Language of Transcendence, Albany/NY: State University of New York Press, presentation: [11]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2010). Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom [12]
  • Religion of the Heart: Essays presented to Frithjof Schuon on his eightieth birthday, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr & William Stoddart, Washington D.C.: Foundation for Traditional Studies (1991). Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Biography of Frithjof SchuonBernard P. Kelly, Notes on the Light of the Eastern Religions, with Special Reference to the Writings of Ananda Coomaraswamy, René Guénon, and Frithjof Schuonet al.

Chapters in books[edit]

  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2005). "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom, 2005 [13]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2004). "The Heart of the Religio Perennis: Frithjof Schuon on Esotericism" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney [14]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2012). "Frithjof Schuon on Culturism", in Touchstones of the Spirit, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom, [15]
  • Oldmeadow, Harry (2019). "Gnosis: A Perennialist Perspective", in The Gnostic World, London & New York: Routledge [16]
  • Scott, Timothy (2004). "The Elect and the Predestination of Knowledge: ‘Esoterism’ and ‘Exclusivism’: A Schuonian Perspective" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney [17]
  • Stoddart, William (2008). "Frithjof Schuon and the Perennialist School" in Remembering in a World of Forgetting: Thoughts on Tradition and Postmodernism, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom [18]
  • Versluis, Arthur (2014). "From Europe to America" in American Gurus: From American Transcendentalism to New Age Religion, Oxford/UK: Oxford University Press [19]

Articles in journals[edit]

Sacred Web (Vancouver, Canada) [20]

  • Vol. 1 (1998). Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998)
  • Vol. 4 (1999). Patrick Laude, Remarks on Esoterism in the works of Frithjof Schuon [21]
  • Vol. 5 (2000). Harry Oldmeadow, Formal Diversity, Essential Unity: Frithjof Schuon on the Convergence of Religions [22]
  • Vol. 6 (2000). Harry Oldmeadow, “Signposts to the suprasensible”: Notes on Frithjof Schuon’s understanding of “Nature” [23] ♦ William Stoddart, Lossky’s Palamitism in the Light of Schuon [24]
  • Vol. 8 (2001). Catherine Schuon, Frithjof Schuon: Memories and Anecdotes
  • Vol. 10 (2002). Mateus Soares de Azevedo, Frithjof Schuon and Sri Ramana Maharshi: A survey of the spiritual masters of the 20th century [25]
  • Vol. 19 (2007). Patrick Laude, "Nigra sum sed Formosa (I am Black but Beautiful)": Death and the Spiritual Life in Frithjof Schuon
  • Vol. 20 (2007) dedicated to Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998) on the Occasion of his Birth Centenary [26]. Ali Lakhani, "Standing Unshakably in the True": A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon [27] ♦ Michael O. Fitzgerald, Beauty and the Sense of the Sacred: Schuon's Antidote to the Modern World ♦ Patrick Laude, Quintessential Esoterism and the Wisdom of Forms: Reflections on Frithjof Schuon's Intellectual and Spiritual Legacy ♦ Timothy Scott, “Made in the Image”: Schuon’s theomorphic anthropology [28]et al.
  • Vol. 30 (2012) & 31 (2013). Bradshaw, Magnus. Conforming to the Real: Frithjof Schuon on Morality [29]

Sophia (Oakton/VA, U.S.A.)

  • Vol. 4, N° 1 (1998). Jean Biès, Frithjof Schuon: A Face of Eternal Wisdom [30]
  • Vol. 4, N° 2 (1998) In Memory: Frithjof Schuon. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, In Memoriam: Frithjof Schuon - A PreludeMartin Lings, Frithjof Schuon: An Autobiographical ApproachHuston Smith, Providence Perceived: In Memory of Frithjof SchuonTage Lindbom, Frithjof Schuon and Our Times [31] ♦ Harry Oldmeadow, A Sage for the Times: The Role and the Oeuvre of Frithjof Schuon [32]Reza Shah-Kazemi, Frithjof Schuon and Prayer [33] ♦ Michael O. Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon's Role in Preserving the Red Indian Spirit [34] ♦ William Stoddart, The German Poems of Frithjof Schuon [35]Brian Keeble, Some Thoughts on Reading Frithjof Schuon's Writings on Art [36]
  • Vol. 5, N° 2 (1999). Martin Lings, Frithjof Schuon and René Guénon
  • Vol. 6, N° 1 (2000). Mark Perry, Frithjof Schuon Seen through his Handwritting
  • Vol. 6, N° 2 (2000). James S. Cutsinger, Colorless Light and Pure Air: The Virgin in the Thought of Frithjof Schuon [37]

DVDs & Online videos[edit]

  • Casey, Jennifer (2012). DVD: Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, Bloomington/IN: World Wisdom
  • Coomaraswamy R., Cutsinger J., Laude P., Lings M., Nasr S.H., Oldmeadow H., Perry M., Smith H., Stoddart W. Video: Origins of the Perennial Philosophy School of Thought [38]
  • Laude, Patrick. Video: Who Was Frithjof Schuon? [39]
  • Lings, Martin. Guénon and Schuon. Videos: [40][41][42][43][44]
  • Schuon, Catherine. Video: Early influences on Frithjof Schuon’s understanding of the transcendent unity of religions [45]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The origin of a creature is not a material substance, it is a perfect and non-material archetype: perfect and consequently without any need of a transforming evolution; non-material and consequently having its origin in the Spirit, and not in matter. Assuredly, there is a trajectory; this starts not from an inert and unconscious substance, but proceeds from the Spirit — the matrix of all possibilities — to the earthly result, the creature; a result which sprang forth from the invisible at a cyclic moment when the physical world was still far less separate from the psychic world than in later and progressively 'hardened' periods." Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 16.
  2. ^ We live in a scene-shifter’s world in which it has become almost impossible to make contact with the primordial realities of things; prejudices and reflexes dictated by an irreversible slide intervene at every step; it is as if before the Renaissance or the Age of Enlightenment man had not been wholly man, or as if in order to be man it were necessary to have passed by way of Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, Marx, Darwin, and Freud, not forgetting – most recent of all – the lethal Teilhard de Chardin. Schuon, Light on the Ancient Worlds, World Wisdom, 2006, p. 106-107
  3. ^ "Some will no doubt point out that Buddhism proves that the notion of God has nothing fundamental about it, and that one can very well dispense with it both in metaphysics and spirituality. They would be right if the Buddhists did not possess the idea of the Absolute or that of transcendence, or that of immanent Justice with its complement, Mercy; this is all that is needed to show that Buddhism, if it does not possess the word for God — or if it does not possess our word — in any case possesses the reality itself. [...] 'Extinction' or the 'Void' is 'God' subjectivized; 'God' is the objective 'Void'." Schuon, Logic and Transcendence, Perennial Books, 1984, p. 60 + Treasures of Buddhism, World Wisdom, 2018, p. 16.
  4. ^ In fact, "the second extends from exoterism to esoterism". Schuon, In the Face of the Absolute, World Wisdom, 1989, p. 197.
  5. ^ "It is true that by definition metaphysical truth transcends all forms, therefore all religions; but man is a form, and he can only reach the informal from within form; otherwise religions would not exist. It is necessary to transcend the religious form within religion itself, in its esoterism." Schuon, Vers l'Essentiel : lettres d'un maître spirituel, Sept Flèches, 2013, p. 217.
  6. ^ "The most diverse traditions agree that the best support for concentration and the best way to obtain Deliverance towards the end of the kali-yuga is the invocation of a revealed divine Name. [...] The foundation of this mystery is, on the one hand, that 'God and his Name are one' (Rāmakrishna), and on the other, that God himself pronounces his Name in himself, hence in eternity and outside all creation, so that his unique and uncreate word is the prototype of jaculatory prayer and even, in a less direct sense, of all orison." Schuon, Vers l'Essentiel : lettres d'un maître spirituel, Sept Flèches, 2013, p. 150 + Stations of Wisdom, World Wisdom, 1995, p. 125
  7. ^ "Esoterism, with its three dimensions of metaphysical discernment, mystical concentration and moral conformity, contains in the final analysis the only things that Heaven demands in an absolute fashion, all other demands being relative and therefore more or less conditional." Schuon, In the Face of the Absolute, 1989, p. 36
  8. ^ "A sacred work of art has a fragrance of infinity, an imprint of the absolute. In it individual talent is disciplined; it blends with the creative function of the tradition as a whole; this cannot be replaced, far less can it be surpassed, by human resources."[95]
  9. ^ "... it even happened that the colours were mixed with holy water and the dust from relics, as would not have been possible had the icon not possessed a really sacramental character."[97]
  10. ^ "...it is thus as far removed as can be from intellectual contemplation and takes into consideration sentimentality only; on the other hand, sentimentality itself becomes degraded in proportion as it fulfils the needs of the masses, until it finishes up in a sickly sweet and pathetic vulgarity. It is strange that no one has understood to what a degree this barbarism of forms, which reached a zenith of empty and miserable boastfulness in the period of Louis XV, contributed — and still contributes — to driving many souls (and by no means the least) away from the Church; they feel literally suffocated in surroundings which do not allow their intelligence room to breathe."[101]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 5
  2. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 1
  3. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon, Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom 2010, p. 1-2
  4. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 51
  5. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 3
  6. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p.151
  7. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard & Patrick Laude, Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, SUNY, 2002
  8. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 37, 42
  9. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 44
  10. ^ a b c d Frithjof Schuon's life and work
  11. ^ Pierre-Marie Sigaud, Dossiers H : René Guénon, L’Âge d’Homme, 1984, p. 321 [1]
  12. ^ Huston Smith, "Providence Perceived: In Memory of Frithjof Schuon", in Sophia Journal, Vol. 4, N° 2, 1998, p. 29
  13. ^ James Cutsinger, "Colorless Light and Pure Air: The Virgin in the Thought of Frithjof Schuon" in Sophia Journal, Vol. 6, N° 2, 2000 [2]
  14. ^ Martin Lings, A Return to the Spirit, Fons Vitae, 2005, p. 6
  15. ^ Renaud Fabbri, Frithjof Schuon: The Shining Realm of the Pure Intellect, MA diss., Miami University, 2007, p. 30.
  16. ^ Arthur Versluis, American Gurus, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 170 [3]
  17. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard & Patrick Laude, Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings, SUNY, 2002
  18. ^ Renaud Fabbri, Frithjof Schuon: The Shining Realm of the Pure Intellect, MA diss., Miami University, 2007, p. 47
  19. ^ News articles on Schuon’s 1991 legal ordeal can be found on accuratenews.net [4]
  20. ^ Mark Segdwick, Against the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 171ff
  21. ^ Book critique by Róbert Horváth and reviews by Michael O. Fitzgerald and Wilson E. Poindexter, "Articles" in Studies in Comparative Religion, 2009 [5] retrieved 2018-08-23
  22. ^ Arthur Versluis, American Gurus, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 171 [6]
  23. ^ Jean-Baptiste Aymard, "Approche biographique" in Connaissance des Religions Journal, Numéro Hors Série Frithjof Schuon, 1999
  24. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 1-2
  25. ^ Patrick Casey, "Preface" in Frithjof Schuon, Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 2012, p. ix
  26. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. i
  27. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, backcover
  28. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Vers L'Essentiel : lettres d'un Maître spirituel, Sept Flèches, 2013, p. 76
  29. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, "Introduction" in Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. xxii
  30. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 37
  31. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 15
  32. ^ Frithjof Schuon, "Lettre à Jean-Pierre Laurant" in Dossiers H : Frithjof Schuon, L’Âge d’Homme, 1984, p 424
  33. ^ Patrick Laude, Keys to the Beyond, Frithjof Schuon’s Cross-Traditional Language of Transcendence, SUNY, 2020, p. 97
  34. ^ a b William Stoddart, Remembering in a World of Forgetting, World Wisdom, 2008, p. 103
  35. ^ Timothy Scott, "The Elect and the Predestination of Knowledge: ‘Esoterism’ and ‘Exclusivism’: A Schuonian Perspective" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney, 2004, p. 3
  36. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Survey of Metaphysics, World Wisdom, 1986, p. 115
  37. ^ Patrick Laude, "Remarques sur la notion d’ésotérisme chez Frithjof Schuon" in Connaissance des religions Journal,1999, p. 216
  38. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, "The Heart of the Religio Perennis, Frithjof Schuon on Esotericism" in Esotericism and the Control of Knowledge, The University of Sydney, 2004, p. 5-7
  39. ^ Thierry Béguelin, "Introduction" in Vers l’Essentiel : lettres d’un maître spirituel, Sept Flèches, 2013, p. 9
  40. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 15-16
  41. ^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 47
  42. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 48
  43. ^ Frithjof Schuon, The Eye of the Heart, World Wisdom, 1997, p. 63
  44. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Light on the Ancient Worlds, World Wisdom, 2006, p. 19 (relativism), 51 (individualism), 109 (atheism), 118 (scientism), 136 (evolutionism)
  45. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 3 (skepticism), 47 (progressivism), 49 (existentialism, empiricism, agnosticism)
  46. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Light on the Ancient Worlds, World Wisdom, 2006, p. 98
  47. ^ Frithjof Schuon, From the Divine to the Human, World Wisdom, 1982, p. 142
  48. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Form and Substance in the Religions, World Wisdom, 2002, p. 63
  49. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Sufism: Veil and Quintessence, World Wisdom, 2006, p. 90
  50. ^ Frithjof Schuon, The Transfiguration of Man, World Wisdom, 1995, p. 3
  51. ^ Frithjof Schuon, The Eye of the Heart, World Wisdom, 1997, p. 62
  52. ^ Ali Lakhani, "A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon" in Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, p. 10
  53. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Roots of the Human Condition, World Wusdom, 2002, p. 45
  54. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 2012, p. 87
  55. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, In the Face of the Absolute, World Wisdom, 1989, p. 197-198
  56. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 32
  57. ^ Jesús García-Varela, "The Role of Virtues According to Frithjof Schuon" in Sophia Journal, 1998, Vol. 4, N° 2, p. 171
  58. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, "Introduction" in Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. xx
  59. ^ a b Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 298-299
  60. ^ Patrick Laude, "Remarks on Esoterism in the Works of Frithjof Schuon", Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 4, 1999, p. 59
  61. ^ James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 2012, p. 195
  62. ^ Reza Shah-Kazemi "Frithjof Schuon and Prayer" in Sophia Journal, Vol. 4, N° 2, 2000, p. 181-182
  63. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 140
  64. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Frithjof Schuon et la tradition islamique" in Connaissance des Religions Journal, Numéro Hors Série Frithjof Schuon, 1999, p. 124
  65. ^ Reza Shah-Kazemi "Frithjof Schuon and Prayer" in Sophia Journal, Vol. 4, N° 2, 2000, p. 180-181, 184, 191
  66. ^ Reza Shah-Kazemi "Frithjof Schuon and Prayer" in Sophia Journal, Vol. 4, N° 2, 2000, p. 183ff
  67. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Logic and Transcendence, Perennial Books, 1984, p. 265
  68. ^ Ali Lakhani, "A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon" in Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, p. 12
  69. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perrenial Books, 1981, p. 238
  70. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Light on the Ancient Worlds, World Wisdom, 1984, p. 136
  71. ^ Ali Lakhani, "A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon" in Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, p. 13
  72. ^ Patrick Laude, "Remarks on Esoterism in the Works of Frithjof Schuon", Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 4, 1999, p. 63-64
  73. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 103
  74. ^ Jesús García-Varela, "The Role of Virtues According to Frithjof Schuon" in Sophia Journal, 1998, Vol. 4, N° 2, p. 170-171
  75. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 2012, p. 32
  76. ^ Frithjof Schuon in Michael Fitzgerald (ed.), Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 155
  77. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 304
  78. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Echoes of Perennial Wisdom, World Wisdom, 2012, p. 35-36
  79. ^ James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 2012, p. 60
  80. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, World Wisdom, 2007, p. 75
  81. ^ Ali Lakhani, "A Commentary on the Teachings of Frithjof Schuon" in Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, p. 15
  82. ^ Frithjof Schuon, La conscience de l'Absolu, Hozhoni, 2016, p. 59
  83. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 196
  84. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Introduction" in The Essential Frithjof Schuon, World Wisdom, 2005, p. 37-38
  85. ^ Harry Oldmeadow, Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. 151
  86. ^ Michael Fitzgerald, "Introduction" in Frithjof Schuon Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, World Wisdom, 2010, p. xxxi
  87. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 195
  88. ^ Timothy Scott, "“Made in the Image”: Schuon’s theomorphic anthropology" in Sacred Web Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, p. 1
  89. ^ James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 2012, p. 115
  90. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Understanding Islam, Allen & Unwin, 1976, p. 134
  91. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 183
  92. ^ a b James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 1997, p. 126
  93. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 100
  94. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 99
  95. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, Perennial Books, 1987, p. 39
  96. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 84
  97. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Quest Books, 1993, p. 77
  98. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Esoterism as Principle and as Way, Perennial Books, 1981, p. 185
  99. ^ James Cutsinger, Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon, SUNY Press, 1997, p. 127
  100. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Spiritual Perspective and Human Facts, Perennial Books, 1987, p. 38
  101. ^ a b Frithjof Schuon, The Transcendent Unity of Religions, Quest Books, 1993, p. 63
  102. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 71
  103. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 70
  104. ^ Frithjof Schuon, Language of the Self, World Wisdom, 1999, p. 100
  105. ^ Martyn Amugen, The Transcendental Unity of Religions and the Decline of the Sacred, Lap Lambert, 2016, p. 88, 114

See also[edit]

External links[edit]