Fritillaria biflora (chocolate lily, mission bells) is a species of fritillary native to western California and northern Baja California. It occurs in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, often in serpentine soil formations and hillside grassland habitats.
Fritillaria biflora is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall. It is called "chocolate lily" because its flowers can resemble the color of chocolate, although sometimes they are dark brown, greenish purple, or yellowish green. Flowers bloom in March and April.
Fritillaria biflorashould not be confused with Arthropodium strictum, which is also called "chocolate lily". In the latter, the scent is reminiscent of chocolate, rather than the color. The Kamchatka fritillary (F. camschatcensis) is sometimes also called "chocolate lily" in Alaska.
- Fritillaria biflora var. biflora—leaves widely lanceolate, most of the species range
- Fritillaria biflora var. ineziana Jeps., Fl. Calif. 1: 306 (1922). -- leaves narrowly lanceolate, endangered taxon known only from one location in San Mateo County
- The Plant List
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- Biota of North America Program
- Flora of North America v 26 p 168, Fritillaria biflora
- Lindley, John. 1834. Edwards's Botanical Register 20: under pl. 1663.
- "Fritillaria biflora". Calflora. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fritillaria biflora.|
- Jepson Manual Treatment - Fritillaria biflora
- USDA Plants Profile; Fritillaria biflora
- Fritillaria biflora - U.C. Photo gallery
- Theodore Payne Foundation: Chocolate Lily
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