Fritillaria liliacea

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Fragrant fritillary
Fritillaria liliacea 2.jpg
Scientific classification
F. liliacea
Binomial name
Fritillaria liliacea
  • Fritillaria alba Kellogg 1855, illegitimate homonym not Nutt. 1818
  • Liliorhiza lanceolata Kellogg
Fritillaria liliacea.jpg

Fritillaria liliacea, commonly known as fragrant fritillary, is a threatened perennial herb in the lily family. It is native to the region surrounding San Francisco Bay in California.[2][3][4]


The bell-shaped white flowers have greenish stripes and are set on a nodding pedicel of about 37 centimeters in height. The blossoms are odorless to faintly fragrant.[5] Fritillia liliacea prefers heavy soils including clays; for example, andesitic and basaltic soils derived from the Sonoma Volcanic soil layers are suitable substrate for this species.[6]


The range of this wildflower is over parts of southwestern Northern California, United States, especially Solano and Sonoma counties and at coastal locations south to Monterey County; occurrence is typically in open hilly grasslands at altitudes less than 200 meters in elevation.[3][7]

This California endemic has been a candidate for listing as a U.S. federally endangered species, and some of the remaining fragmented colonies are at risk of local extinction, such that the species is considered locally endangered. Example occurrences are: Edgewood Park in San Mateo County and the Sonoma Mountains foothills in Sonoma County. Examples of highly fragmented or extirpated colonies are in San Francisco due to urban development.[8]

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