He was born in Germany and studied at the University of Berlin until 1934 when he moved to United States. He received his Ph.D. degree at Columbia University on a thesis entitled Systems of Algebraic Mixed Difference Equations advised by Joseph Ritt (1934). Herzog was an electrical engineering research associate at Cornell University (1938–43), working with Michel G. Malti on dynamo research. Together they solved an important electric power problem on balancing dynamos, which had remained open since the days of Michael Faraday a century before. Most of his career was spent at Michigan State University (1943–73) where he gave name to the Fritz Herzog Prize Endowment Fund. Herzog died at East Lansing of prostate cancer. He had a wife named Helen (née' Korngold) Herzog
- Notices of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 49, no. 6, p.694 (2002)
- entry at Mathematics Genealogy Project
- "DYNAMO 'BALANCE' FOUND AT CORNELL; Problem Left by Faraday Is Solved ...". New York Times. 13 March 1939. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- "Cornell Scientists Find New Way to 'Balance' Dynamos". Washington Post. 13 March 1939. Retrieved 2008-06-27.