Frontal fibrosing alopecia

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Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia is a term given to the frontotemporal hairline recession and eyebrow loss in postmenopausal women that is associated with perifollicular erythema, especially along the hairline.[1]:648 It is considered to be a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris.[2]

Pathogenesis[edit]

Although the pathogenesis of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia is poorly understood, autoimmune reaction and hormonal factors may play a role.[3]

Clinical presentation[edit]

There is loss of both terminal and vellus hairs that occurs in a bandlike pattern on the frontotemporal scalp.[4] It is a scarring alopecia that has been associated with a loss of eyebrows, facial papules, glabellar red dots, and prominent venous vasculature in the forehead.[3][5][6][7]

Differential Diagnosis[edit]

Important diagnoses to consider include female pattern hair loss (FPHL), chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), and alopecia areata (AA). FPHL is a non-scarring progressive miniaturization of the hair follicle with one of three different characteristic patterns. CTE is an idiopathic disease causing increased hair shedding and bi-temporal recession, usually in middle aged women. AA is an autoimmune attack of hair follicles that usually causes hair to fall out in small round patches.[8]

Associations[edit]

Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia has been most often reported in post-menopausal women with higher levels of affluence and a negative smoking history. Autoimmune disease is found in 30% of patients.[3][9]

Diagnostic Studies[edit]

Perifollicular erythema and scarring white patches are seen on dermoscopy. On scalp biopsy, lymphocytic and granulomatous perifolliculitis with eccentric atrophy of follicular epithelia and perifollicular fibrosis are visualized.[10]

Treatment[edit]

Improvement or stabilization of the condition has been reported with topical and intralesional corticosteroids, antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, topical and oral immunomodulators, tacrolimus, and most recently, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. In one study, the use of anti-androgens (finasteride or dutasteride) was associated with improvement in 47% and stabilization in 53% of patients [11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
  2. ^ Lacarrubba, F; Micali, G; Tosti, A (Mar 18, 2013). "Absence Of Vellus Hair In The Hairline: A Videodermatoscopic Feature Of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia.". The British journal of dermatology 169 (2): 473–4. doi:10.1111/bjd.12316. PMID 23496000. 
  3. ^ a b c Macdonald A, Clark C, Holmes S. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a review of 60 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(5):955-61.
  4. ^ Kossard S, Lee MS, Wilkinson B. Postmenopausal alopecia: a frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36(1):59.
  5. ^ Banka N, Mubki T, Bunagan MJ, Mcelwee K, Shapiro J. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a retrospective clinical review of 62 patients with treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(11):1324-30.
  6. ^ Pirmez R, Donati A, Valente NS, Sodré CT, Tosti A. Glabellar red dots in frontal fibrosing alopecia: a further clinical sign of vellus follicle involvement. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170(3):745-6.
  7. ^ Vañó-galván S, Rodrigues-barata AR, Urech M, et al. Depression of the frontal veins: A new clinical sign of frontal fibrosing alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(6):1087-8.
  8. ^ Herskovitz I, Tosti A. Female pattern hair loss. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;11(4):e9860.
  9. ^ Kossard S. Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia: scarring alopecia in a pattern distribution. Arch Dermatol 1994;130:770-4.
  10. ^ Dhurat R, Saraogi P. Hair evaluation methods: merits and demerits. Int J Trichology. 2009;1(2):108-19.
  11. ^ Vañó-galván S, Molina-ruiz AM, Serrano-falcón C, et al. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a multicenter review of 355 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(4):670-8.