Frontier markets

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A frontier market is a type of developing country which is more developed than the least developing countries, but too small, risky, or illiquid to be generally considered an emerging market. The term is an economic term which was coined by International Finance Corporation’s Farida Khambata in 1992. The term is commonly used[1] to describe the equity markets of the smaller and less accessible, but still "investable", countries of the developing world. The frontier, or pre-emerging equity markets are typically pursued by investors seeking high, long-run return potential as well as low correlations with other markets.[2] Some frontier market countries were emerging markets in the past, but have regressed to frontier status.[3][4]

Terminology[edit]

The term began use when the IFC Emerging Markets Database (EMDB), led by Farida Khambata, began publishing data on smaller markets in 1992. Khambata coined the term “Frontier Markets” for this set of indices. Standard and Poor's bought EMDB from IFC in 1999 and in October 2007, S&P launched the first investable index, the Select Frontier Index (30 of the largest companies from 11 countries) and the Extended Frontier Index (150 companies from 27 countries).[5] Subsequently, MSCI Barra began a rival frontier market index,[6] and in early 2008, Deutsche Bank launched the first frontier market exchange-traded fund, on the London Stock Exchange.[7] Frontier markets are a sub-set of emerging markets, which have market capitalizations that are small and/or low annual turnover and/or market restrictions unsuitable for inclusion in the larger EM indexes but nonetheless "demonstrate a relative openness to and accessibility for foreign investors" and are not under "extreme economic and political instability."[6]

Members could be considered to fall roughly into three groups:

  • Small countries of relatively high development level (such as Estonia) that are too small to be considered emerging markets,
  • Countries with investment restrictions that have begun to loosen as of the mid 2000s (such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council)
  • Countries at a lower development level than the existing "mainstream" emerging markets (such as Kenya or Vietnam).[8]

The term pre-emerging markets is sometimes used as a synonym for "frontier markets", emphasizing the expectation that they will eventually "graduate" to "emerging market" status.[9]

Investment case[edit]

Frontier markets have lower market capitalization and liquidity than the more developed, "traditional" emerging markets. The frontier equity markets are typically pursued by investors seeking high, long term returns and low correlations with other markets[10][11][12]

The implication of a country being labeled as Frontier is that, over time, the market will become more liquid and exhibit similar risk and return characteristics as the larger, more liquid developed emerging markets.

According to frontier market investors, frontier assets would actually diversify and reduce risk, which contradicts the general notion that risk would be added by including those markets.[13]

Those who have a focus on frontier markets have different views on what the future holds for the inter-correlation of countries within the asset class. While they share some economics characteristics such as young, increasing educated populations, the individual economies face different internal and external forces. Funds invest to find returns in countries that have increasing trends in domestic consumption but see the overall growth drivers for each country as being different.[14][15] This investment thesis holds water as it is unlikely that a manufacturing based economy, such as Bangladesh, would respond in the same way to external shocks as an island nation where a large proportion of the economy is linked to tourism, such as Sri Lanka.

There are also other non managed ways to gain exposure to these markets that are more generic such as investing in frontier market indices such as MSCI Frontier Index that only invest in large liquid stocks.

Frontier markets list[edit]

A number of organisations place countries into their Frontier market indices.

Country FTSE[16] MSCI[17] S&P[18] Russell[19]
 Argentina Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Bahrain Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Bangladesh Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Benin not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Bosnia and Herzegovina not rated Frontier not rated Frontier
 Botswana Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Bulgaria Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Burkina Faso not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Côte d'Ivoire Frontier Frontier[a] Frontier Frontier
 Croatia Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Cyprus Frontier not rated Frontier Frontier
 Ecuador not rated not rated Frontier not rated
 Estonia Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Egypt Secondary emerging Emerging Emerging Frontier
 Gabon not rated not rated not rated Frontier
 Ghana Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Guinea-Bissau not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Jamaica not rated Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Jordan Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Kazakhstan Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Kenya Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Kuwait Secondary emerging Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Latvia Frontier not rated Frontier Emerging
 Lebanon not rated Frontier Frontier not rated
 Lithuania Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Macedonia Frontier not rated not rated not rated
 Mali not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Malta Frontier not rated not rated Frontier
 Mauritius Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Morocco Frontier Frontier Frontier Emerging
 Namibia not rated not rated Frontier Frontier
 Niger not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Nigeria Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Oman Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Pakistan Secondary emerging Emerging Emerging Frontier
 Panama not rated Frontier Frontier not rated
 Papua New Guinea not rated not rated not rated Frontier
 Qatar Secondary emerging Emerging Emerging Frontier
 Romania Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Senegal not rated Frontier[a] not rated Frontier
 Serbia Frontier Frontier not rated Frontier
 Slovakia Frontier not rated Frontier Frontier
 Slovenia Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Sri Lanka Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Tanzania not rated not rated not rated Frontier
 Togo not rated Frontier[a] not rated not rated
 Trinidad and Tobago not rated Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Tunisia Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Ukraine not rated Frontier not rated Frontier
 Vietnam Frontier Frontier Frontier Frontier
 Zambia not rated not rated Frontier Frontier
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Included in MSCI frontier markets category as part of the West African Economic and Monetary Union

Past changes[edit]

Colombia was promoted to Emerging market by Standard & Poors effective September 19, 2011[20].There have been a number of other changes and updates over the years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frontier Markets: The new emerging emerging markets Doughroller
  2. ^ Salamat, Rishaad. "Investing in Cambodia, Haiti, Bangladesh, Laos". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  3. ^ "MSCI will downgrade Argentina to frontier market - Emerging Markets Report - MarketWatch".
  4. ^ "MSCI reclassifies stocks in emerging, frontier market indexes | Reuters". Reuters.
  5. ^ "S&P Launches First Investable Index for Frontier Equity Markets" (Press release). Standard & Poor's. 2007-10-22.
  6. ^ a b "MSCI Frontier Markets Indices" (PDF) (Press release). MSCI Barra. 2007-12-18.
  7. ^ Coleman, Murray (2008-02-14). "First Frontiers ETFs Open Overseas". Index Universe.
  8. ^ Kirchenbauer, Reid (2017-03-25). "Investing in Vietnam: The Ultimate Guide". InvestAsian.
  9. ^ "What are emerging markets?". Barclays. 2017-04-11.
  10. ^ Guerrero, Tomás (March 2013) Frontier Markets: A World of Opportunities
  11. ^ Guerrero, Tomás (September 2013) Frontier Markets: Old Acquaintances, New Opportunities
  12. ^ Guerrero, Tomás (May 2014). "Frontier Markets: More profitable, less volatile". Financial Times.
  13. ^ According to Marek Ondraschek, Founder of Zurich-based ALNUA Investment Managers and former CEO & CIO of Swiss Life Asset in a video interview.
  14. ^ http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?play=1&video=3000192230
  15. ^ Berger, Dave; Pukthuanthong, Kuntara; Jimmy Yang, J. (2011). "International diversification with frontier markets". Journal of Financial Economics. 101: 227–242. doi:10.1016/j.jfineco.2011.02.009.
  16. ^ "FTSE classification of equity markets September 2018" (PDF). FTSE Russell. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Market cap indexes - MSCI". Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  18. ^ "S&P Dow Jones Indices' 2018 Country Classification Consultation" (PDF). S&P Dow Jones Indices. spice-indices.com. 13 June 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Global Guidebook: Country Classifications" (PDF). Russell Indexes. March 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  20. ^ [1]