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Frost weathering

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A rock in Abisko, Sweden, fractured (along existing joints) possibly by mechanical frost weathering or thermal stress (a chullo is shown for scale)
Rock face and downstream exit of the stream (Unnamed) of the cave of the Trou du Diable, Saint-Casimir, Quebec

Frost weathering is a collective term for several mechanical weathering processes induced by stresses created by the freezing of water into ice. The term serves as an umbrella term for a variety of processes, such as frost shattering, frost wedging, and cryofracturing. The process may act on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from minutes to years and from dislodging mineral grains to fracturing boulders. It is most pronounced in high-altitude and high-latitude areas and is especially associated with alpine, periglacial, subpolar maritime, and polar climates, but may occur anywhere at sub-freezing temperatures (between −3 and −8 °C (27 and 18 °F)) if water is present.[1]

Ice segregation[edit]

Certain frost-susceptible soils expand or heave upon freezing as a result of water migrating via capillary action to grow ice lenses near the freezing front.[2] This same phenomenon occurs within pore spaces of rocks. The ice accumulations grow larger as they attract liquid water from the surrounding pores. The ice crystal growth weakens the rocks which, in time, break up.[3] It is caused by the expansion of ice when water freezes, putting considerable stress on the walls of containment. This is actually a very common process in all humid, temperate areas where there is exposed rock, especially porous rocks like sandstone. Sand can often be found just under the faces of exposed sandstone where individual grains have been popped off, one by one. This process is often termed frost spalling. In fact, this is often the most important weathering process for exposed rock in many areas.

Similar processes can act on asphalt pavements, contributing to various forms of cracking and other distresses, which, when combined with traffic and the intrusion of water, accelerate rutting, the formation of potholes,[4] and other forms of pavement roughness.[5]

Volumetric expansion[edit]

The traditional explanation for frost weathering was volumetric expansion of freezing water. When water freezes to ice, its volume increases by nine percent. Under specific circumstances, this expansion is able to displace or fracture rock. At a temperature of -22 °C, ice growth is known to be able to generate pressures of up to 207MPa, more than enough to fracture any rock.[6][7] For frost weathering to occur by volumetric expansion, the rock must have almost no air that can be compressed to compensate for the expansion of ice, which means it has to be water-saturated and frozen quickly from all sides so that the water does not migrate away and the pressure is exerted on the rock.[6] These conditions are considered unusual,[6] restricting it to a process of importance within a few centimeters of a rock's surface and on larger existing water-filled joints in a process called ice wedging.

Not all volumetric expansion is caused by the pressure of the freezing water; it can be caused by stresses in water that remains unfrozen. When ice growth induces stresses in the pore water that breaks the rock, the result is called hydrofracture. Hydrofracturing is favoured by large interconnected pores or large hydraulic gradients in the rock. If there are small pores, a very quick freezing of water in parts of the rock may expel water, and if the water is expelled faster than it can migrate, pressure may rise, fracturing the rock.

Since research in physical weathering begun around 1900, volumetric expansion was, until the 1980s, held to be the predominant process behind frost weathering.[8] This view was challenged in 1985 and 1986 publications by Walder and Hallet.[6][8] Nowadays researchers such as Matsuoka and Murton consider the "conditions necessary for frost weathering by volumetric expansion" as unusual.[6] However the bulk of recent literature demonstrates that that ice segregation is capable of providing quantitative models for common phenomena while the traditional, simplistic volumetric expansion does not.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hales, T. C.; Roering, Joshua (2007). "Climatic controls on frost cracking and implications for the evolution of bedrock landscapes". Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. 112 (F2): F02033. Bibcode:2007JGRF..112.2033H. CiteSeerX doi:10.1029/2006JF000616.
  2. ^ Taber, Stephen (1930). "The mechanics of frost heaving" (PDF). Journal of Geology. 38 (4): 303–317. Bibcode:1930JG.....38..303T. doi:10.1086/623720. S2CID 129655820. Archived from the original on 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  3. ^ Goudie, A.S.; Viles H. (2008). "5: Weathering Processes and Forms". In Burt T.P.; Chorley R.J.; Brunsden D.; Cox N.J.; Goudie A.S. (eds.). Quaternary and Recent Processes and Forms. Landforms or the Development of Gemorphology. Vol. 4. Geological Society. pp. 129–164. ISBN 9781862392496.
  4. ^ Eaton, Robert A.; Joubert, Robert H. (December 1989), Wright, Edmund A. (ed.), Pothole Primer: A Public Administrator's Guide to Understanding and Managing the Pothole Problem, Special Report 81-21, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
  5. ^ Minnesota's Cold Weather Road Research Facility (2007). "Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements — Phase II (MnROAD Study)". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07.
  6. ^ a b c d e Matsuoka, N.; Murton, J. (2008). "Frost weathering: recent advances and future directions". Permafrost Periglac. Process. 19 (2): 195–210. doi:10.1002/ppp.620. Archived from the original on 2019-12-25.
  7. ^ T︠S︡ytovich, Nikolaĭ Aleksandrovich (1975). The mechanics of frozen ground. Scripta Book Co. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-07-065410-5.
  8. ^ a b Walder, Joseph S.; Bernard, Hallet (February 1986). "The Physical Weathering of Frost Weathering: Towards a More Fundamental and Unified Perspective". Arctic and Alpine Research. 8 (1): 27–32. doi:10.2307/1551211. JSTOR 1551211.
  9. ^ "Periglacial weathering and headwall erosion in cirque glacier bergschrunds"; Johnny W. Sanders, Kurt M. Cuffey1, Jeffrey R. Moore, Kelly R. MacGregor and Jeffrey L. Kavanaugh; Geology; July 18, 2012, doi: 10.1130/G33330.1
  10. ^ Bell, Robin E. (27 April 2008). "The role of subglacial water in ice-sheet mass balance". Nature Geoscience. 1 (5802): 297–304. Bibcode:2008NatGe...1..297B. doi:10.1038/ngeo186.
  11. ^ Murton, Julian B.; Peterson, Rorik; Ozouf, Jean-Claude (17 November 2006). "Bedrock Fracture by Ice Segregation in Cold Regions". Science. 314 (5802): 1127–1129. Bibcode:2006Sci...314.1127M. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126/science.1132127. PMID 17110573. S2CID 37639112.
  12. ^ Dash, G.; A. W. Rempel; J. S. Wettlaufer (2006). "The physics of premelted ice and its geophysical consequences". Rev. Mod. Phys. 78 (695): 695. Bibcode:2006RvMP...78..695D. CiteSeerX doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.78.695.
  13. ^ Rempel, A.W.; Wettlaufer, J.S.; Worster, M.G. (2001). "Interfacial Premelting and the Thermomolecular Force: Thermodynamic Buoyancy". Physical Review Letters. 87 (8): 088501. Bibcode:2001PhRvL..87h8501R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.088501. PMID 11497990.
  14. ^ Rempel, A. W. (2008). "A theory for ice-till interactions and sediment entrainment beneath glaciers" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 113 (113=): F01013. Bibcode:2008JGRF..113.1013R. doi:10.1029/2007JF000870. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-04-13.
  15. ^ Peterson, R. A.; Krantz , W. B. (2008). "Differential frost heave model for patterned ground formation: Corroboration with observations along a North American arctic transect" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 113: G03S04. doi:10.1029/2007JG000559. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-07-09.