Fort Lauderdale, Florida
|Fort Lauderdale, Florida|
|City of Fort Lauderdale|
Downtown Fort Lauderdale
|Nickname(s): Venice of America|
U.S. Census Bureau map
|Established||March 27, 1911|
|• Mayor||Dean Trantalis (D)|
|• Vice Mayor||Robert L. McKinzie|
|• Commissioners||Heather Moraitis, Steven Glassman, Ben Sorensen |
|• City Manager||Lee R. Feldman|
|• City Clerk||Arleen Gross|
|• City||36.31 sq mi (94.05 km2)|
|• Land||34.62 sq mi (89.67 km2)|
|• Water||1.69 sq mi (4.37 km2) 9.87%|
|Elevation||9 ft (2.75 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||178,752|
|• Density||5,162.81/sq mi (1,993.39/km2)|
|• Metro||5,762,717 (US: 8th)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|ZIP codes||33301, 33304-33306, 33308-33309, 33312-33313, 33315-33316, 33334, 33394|
|Area code(s)||754, 954|
|GNIS feature ID||0282693|
Fort Lauderdale (//; frequently abbreviated as Ft. Lauderdale) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, 28 miles (45 km) north of Miami. It is the county seat of Broward County, and a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 165,521 in 2010.
The city is a popular tourist destination, with an average year-round temperature of 75.5 °F (24.2 °C) and 3,000 hours of sunshine per year. Greater Fort Lauderdale, encompassing all of Broward County, hosted 12 million visitors in 2012, including 2.8 million international visitors. In 2012, the county collected $43.9 million from the 5% hotel tax it charges, after hotels in the area recorded an occupancy rate for the year of 72.7 percent and an average daily rate of $114.48. The district has 561 hotels and motels comprising nearly 35,000 rooms. Forty-six cruise ships sailed from Port Everglades in 2012. Greater Fort Lauderdale has over 4,000 restaurants, 63 golf courses, 12 shopping malls, 16 museums, 132 nightclubs, 278 parkland campsites, and 100 marinas housing 45,000 resident yachts.
Fort Lauderdale is named after a series of forts built by the United States during the Second Seminole War. The forts took their name from Major William Lauderdale (1782–1838), younger brother of Lieutenant Colonel James Lauderdale. William Lauderdale was the commander of the detachment of soldiers who built the first fort. However, development of the city did not begin until 50 years after the forts were abandoned at the end of the conflict.
Three forts named "Fort Lauderdale" were constructed: the first was at the fork of the New River, the second was at Tarpon Bend on the New River between the present-day Colee Hammock and Rio Vista neighborhoods, and the third was near the site of the Bahia Mar Marina.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Healthcare
- 9 Media and culture
- 10 Sports
- 11 Sites of interest
- 12 Historic structures
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The area in which the city of Fort Lauderdale would later be founded was inhabited for more than two thousand years by the Tequesta Indians. Contact with Spanish explorers in the 16th century proved disastrous for the Tequesta, as the Europeans unwittingly brought with them diseases, such as smallpox, to which the native populations possessed no resistance. For the Tequesta, disease, coupled with continuing conflict with their Calusa neighbors, contributed greatly to their decline over the next two centuries. By 1763, there were only a few Tequesta left in Florida, and most of them were evacuated to Cuba when the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years' War. Although control of the area changed between Spain, United Kingdom, the United States, and the Confederate States of America, it remained largely undeveloped until the 20th century.
The Fort Lauderdale area was known as the "New River Settlement" before the 20th century. In the 1830s there were approximately 70 settlers living along the New River. William Cooley, the local Justice of the Peace, was a farmer and wrecker, who traded with the Seminole Indians. On January 6, 1836, while Cooley was leading an attempt to salvage a wrecked ship, a band of Seminoles attacked his farm, killing his wife and children, and the children's tutor. The other farms in the settlement were not attacked, but all the white residents in the area abandoned the settlement, fleeing first to the Cape Florida Lighthouse on Key Biscayne, and then to Key West.
The first United States stockade named Fort Lauderdale was built in 1838, and subsequently was a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. The fort was abandoned in 1842, after the end of the war, and the area remained virtually unpopulated until the 1890s. It was not until Frank Stranahan arrived in the area in 1893 to operate a ferry across the New River, and the Florida East Coast Railroad's completion of a route through the area in 1896, that any organized development began. The city was incorporated in 1911, and in 1915 was designated the county seat of newly formed Broward County.
Fort Lauderdale's first major development began in the 1920s, during the Florida land boom. The 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a great deal of economic dislocation. In July 1935, an African-American man named Rubin Stacy was accused of robbing a white woman at knife point. He was arrested and being transported to a Miami jail when police were run off the road by a mob. A group of 100 white men proceeded to hang Stacy from a tree near the scene of his alleged robbery. His body was riddled with some twenty bullets. The murder was subsequently used by the press in Nazi Germany to discredit US critiques of its own persecution of Jews, Communists, and Catholics.
When World War II began, Fort Lauderdale became a major US base, with a Naval Air Station to train pilots, radar operators, and fire control operators. A Coast Guard base at Port Everglades was also established.
On July 4, 1961 African Americans started a series of protests, wade-ins, at beaches that were off-limits to them, to protest "the failure of the county to build a road to the Negro beach". On July 11, 1962 a verdict by Ted Cabot went against the city's policy of racial segregation of public beaches.
After the war ended, service members returned to the area, spurring an enormous population explosion which dwarfed the 1920s boom. The 1960 Census counted 83,648 people in the city, about 230% of the 1950 figure. A 1967 report estimated that the city was approximately 85% developed, and the 1970 population figure was 139,590.
After 1970, as Fort Lauderdale became essentially built out, growth in the area shifted to suburbs to the west. As cities such as Coral Springs, Miramar, and Pembroke Pines experienced explosive growth, Fort Lauderdale's population stagnated, and the city actually shrank by almost 4,000 people between 1980, when the city had 153,279 people, and 1990, when the population was 149,377. A slight rebound brought the population back up to 152,397 at the 2000 census. Since 2000, Fort Lauderdale has gained slightly over 18,000 residents through annexation of seven neighborhoods in unincorporated Broward County.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.6 square miles (99.9 km2), 34.7 square miles (90.0 km2) of which is land and 3.8 square miles (9.9 km2) of which is water (9.87%). Fort Lauderdale is known for its extensive network of canals; there are 165 miles (266 km) of waterways within the city limits.
The city of Fort Lauderdale is adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, includes 7 miles (11 km) of beaches, and borders the following municipalities:
|On its east:||On its south:||On its southwest:|
|On its west:||On its northwest:||On its north:|
The northwestern section of Fort Lauderdale is separate from the remainder of the city, connected only by the Cypress Creek Canal as it flows under I-95. This section of Fort Lauderdale borders the cities of Tamarac and Oakland Park on its south side. Oakland Park also borders Fort Lauderdale on the west side of its northeastern portion. The greater portion of Fort Lauderdale in the south is bordered, along its north side by Wilton Manors.
Off the coast of Fort Lauderdale is the Osborne Reef, an artificial reef made of discarded tires that has proven to be an ecological disaster. The dumping began in the 1960s, with the intent to provide habitat for fish while disposing of trash from the land. However, in the rugged and corrosive environment of the ocean, nylon straps used to secure the tires wore out, cables rusted, and tires broke free. The tires posed a particular threat after breaking free from their restraints. The tires then migrated shoreward and ran into a living reef tract, washed up on its slope and killed many things in their path. In recent years, thousands of tires have also washed up on nearby beaches, especially during hurricanes. Local authorities are now working to remove the 700,000 tires, in cooperation with the U.S. Army, Navy and Coast Guard.
Fort Lauderdale has an official program for designating and recognizing neighborhoods. Under the Neighborhood Organization Recognition Program, more than 60 distinct neighborhoods have received official recognition from the city. An additional 25–30 neighborhoods exist without official recognition, although the city's neighborhood map displays them as well.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Fort Lauderdale has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af), having slightly too much rain in its driest month to be considered a tropical savanna climate. While the city does not have a true dry season, much of the seasonal rainfall comes between May and October. Winters are frequently dry and sunny, and drought can be a concern in some years. (see climate chart below).
The wet season runs from May through October, and weather is typically hot, humid, and wet with average high temperatures of 86–90 °F (30–32 °C) and lows of 71–76 °F (22–24 °C). During this period, more than half of summer days may bring brief afternoon or evening thunderstorms with lighting and bursts of intense rainfall. The record high temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) was recorded on June 22, 2009.
The dry season often arrives some time in November and lasts through early to mid April. Sensible weather is often warm, dry, and sunny. Average high temperatures of 75–82 °F (24–28 °C) and lows of 59–67 °F (15–19 °C) are typical in the dry season. On rare occasion, cool fronts may make it all the way south to Ft. Lauderdale and the city will see a day or two of highs in the 60s °F (16-21 °C) and lows in the 40s °F (4-10 °C). Rare frosts occur every few decades, and only once in reported history have snow flurries been reported in the air ;– on January 19, 1977. During the dry season (winter), brush fires can be a concern in many years.
Annual average precipitation is 64.2 inches (1,630 mm), with most of it occurring during the wet season from May through October. However, rainfall occurs in all months, even during the drier months from November through April. Fort Lauderdale has an average of 143 rain days and 250 sunshine days annually. The hurricane season is between June 1 and November 30 with major hurricanes most likely to affect the city or state in September and October. The most recent storms to directly affect the city were Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Wilma, both of which struck the city in 2005. Other direct hits were Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Hurricane King in 1950, and the 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane.
|Climate data for Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport, Florida (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1912–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||88
|Average high °F (°C)||76.3
|Average low °F (°C)||61.6
|Record low °F (°C)||28
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||3.63
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.0||6.1||6.9||5.4||8.8||15.9||15.9||15.7||15.8||10.6||8.1||8.1||122.3|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Fort Lauderdale Demographics|
|2010 Census||Fort Lauderdale||Broward County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||+8.6%||+7.7%||+17.6%|
|Population density||4,761.1/sq mi||1,444.9/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||62.6%||63.1%||75.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||52.5%||43.5%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||31.0%||26.7%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||13.7%||25.1%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.3%||0.3%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.1%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||2.1%||2.9%||2.5%|
|Some Other Race||2.4%||3.7%||3.6%|
As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 13.7% of Fort Lauderdale's population. Out of the 13.7%, 2.5% were Cuban, 2.3% Puerto Rican, 1.7% Mexican, 1.1% Colombian, 0.9% Guatemalan, 0.8% Salvadoran, 0.6% Honduran, and 0.6% were Peruvian.
As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 31.0% of Fort Lauderdale's population, which includes African Americans. Out of the 31.0%, 10.0% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American (6.4% Haitian, 2.5% Jamaican, 0.4% Bahamian, 0.2% Other or Unspecified West Indian, 0.2% British West Indian, 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% Barbadian), 0.6% were Black Hispanics, and 0.5% were Subsaharan African.
As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 52.5% of Fort Lauderdale's population. Out of the 52.5%, 10.3% were Irish, 10.1% German, 8.1% Italian, 7.1% English, 3.0% Polish, 2.1% French, 1.9% Russian, 1.7% Scottish, 1.2% Scotch-Irish, 1.0% Dutch, 1.0% Swedish, 0.6% Greek, 0.6% Hungarian, 0.5% Norwegian, and 0.5% were French Canadian.
As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.5% of Fort Lauderdale's population. Out of the 1.5%, 0.4% were Indian, 0.3% Filipino, 0.3% Other Asian, 0.2% Chinese, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, and 0.1% were Korean.
As of 2010, there were 74,786 occupied households, while 19.7% were vacant. 17.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.4% were married couples living together, 12.3% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 52.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.8% male and 6.3% female.) The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 3.00.
In 2010, the city population was spread out with 17.6% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 30.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.1 males.
As of 2010, the median income for a household in the city was $49,818, and the median income for a family was $59,238. Males had a median income of $46,706 versus $37,324 for females. The per capita income for the city was $35,828. About 13.1% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.3% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those aged 65 or over.
In 2010, 21.3% of the city's population was foreign-born. Of foreign-born residents, 69.6% were born in Latin America and 15.3% were born in Europe, with smaller percentages from North America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
In 2000, Fort Lauderdale had the twenty-sixth highest percentage of Haitian residents in the US, at 6.9% of the city's population, and the 127th highest percentage of Cuban residents, at 1.7% of the city's residents.
Like South Florida in general, Fort Lauderdale has many residents who can speak languages other than English, although its proportion is lower than the county average. As of 2000, 75.63% of the population spoke only English at home, while 24.37% spoke other first languages. Speakers of Spanish were 9.43%, French Creole (mostly Haitian Creole) 7.52%, French 2.04%, Portuguese 1.02%, Italian 0.82%, and German at 0.80%.
The city, along with adjacent small cities Oakland Park and Wilton Manors, is known for its large LGBT community and has one of the highest ratios of gay men and lesbians, with gay men being more largely present, in the United States. The city is also known as a popular vacation spot for gays and lesbians, with many LGBT or LGBT-friendly hotels and guesthouses. Fort Lauderdale hosts the Stonewall Library & Archives, and in neighboring Wilton Manors there is a large LGBT community center, the Pride Center, and the World AIDS Museum and Educational Center.
Fort Lauderdale's economy has diversified over time. From the 1940s through the 1980s, the city was known as a spring break destination for college students. However, the college crowd has since dwindled, with the city now attracting wealthier tourists. Cruise ships and nautical recreation provide the basis for much of the revenue raised by tourism. There is a convention center located west of the beach and southeast of downtown, with 600,000 square feet (55,742 m2) of space, including a 200,000-square-foot (18,581 m2) main exhibit hall. Approximately 30% of the city's 10 million annual visitors attend conventions at the center.
The downtown area, especially around Las Olas Boulevard, first underwent redevelopment starting in 2002 and now hosts many new hotels and high-rise condominium developments. The downtown area is the largest in Broward County, although there are other cities in the county with commercial centers. Office buildings and highrises include Las Olas River House, Las Olas Grand, 110 Tower (formerly AutoNation Tower), Bank of America Plaza, One Financial Plaza, Broward Financial Center, One East Broward Boulevard, Barnett Bank Plaza, PNC Center, New River Center, One Corporate Center, SunTrust Centre, 101 Tower, and SouthTrust Tower.
The Fort Lauderdale metropolitan area foreclosures increased 127.4% from 2006 to 2007, or one filing per 48 households in the quarter. Fort Lauderdale ranks fourth in the list of top 10 metropolitan areas ranked by foreclosure filings per household for the third quarter of 2007.
Fort Lauderdale is a major manufacturing and maintenance center for yachts. The boating industry is responsible for over 109,000 jobs in the county. With its many canals, and proximity to the Bahamas and Caribbean, it is also a popular yachting vacation stop, and home port for 42,000 boats, and approximately 100 marinas and boatyards. Additionally, the annual Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show, the world's largest boat show, brings over 125,000 people to the city each year.
Companies based in the Fort Lauderdale area include AutoNation, Citrix Systems, Commcare Pharmacy, DHL Express, Spirit Airlines, and National Beverage Corporation. The largest employers in the county are Tenet Healthcare, which employs 5,000 people; American Express, which employs 4,200; FirstService Residential, which employs 3,900; Motorola, which employs 3,000, and Maxim Integrated Products, which employs 2,000.
Fort Lauderdale was recently listed as 2017's third best city out of 150 U.S. cities by WalletHub for summer jobs, and the 24th best city to start a career in.
Fort Lauderdale has a Commission-Manager form of government. City policy is set by a city commission of five elected members: the mayor and four district commission members. In 1998, the municipal code was amended to limit the mayoral term. The mayor of Fort Lauderdale now serves a three-year term and cannot serve more than three consecutive terms. The current mayor is John P. "Jack" Seiler. He succeeds the longest serving mayor, Jim Naugle, 1991-2009. Administrative functions are performed by a city manager, who is appointed by the city commission. Fort Lauderdale Fire-Rescue Department provides Fire and Emergency Medical Services.
The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Fort Lauderdale. The Fort Lauderdale Main Post Office is located at 1900 West Oakland Park Boulevard in the city of Oakland Park. Post offices within the city limits include Alridge, Colee, Coral Ridge, Gateway Station, Melrose Vista, and Southside Station.
According to 2000 census data, 79.0% of the city's population aged 25 or older were high school graduates, slightly below the national figure of 80.4%. 27.9% held at least a baccalaureate, slightly higher than the national figure of 24.4%. Broward County Public Schools operates 23 public schools in Fort Lauderdale. 2007 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) results for Fort Lauderdale's public schools were mixed; while ten (of sixteen) elementary schools and one (of four) middle schools received "A" or "B" grades, Sunland Park Elementary School and Arthur Ashe Middle School received failing grades. Boyd Anderson High School, which is located in Lauderdale Lakes but whose attendance zone includes part of Fort Lauderdale, also received a failing grade. None of the three failing schools have failed twice in a four-year period, thus triggering the "Opportunity Scholarship Program" school choice provisions of the Florida's education plan.
Ten institutions of higher learning have main or satellite campuses in the city:
- Broward College BC (Willis Holcombe Downtown Center)
- City College
- Florida Atlantic University FAU (satellite campus)
- Florida International University FIU (satellite campus)
- Keiser University
- Nova Southeastern University NSU (satellite campus)
- The Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale
- University of Phoenix (Cypress Creek Learning Center)
- Jersey College
- Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (satellite campus)
Local bus transportation is provided by Broward County Transit (BCT), the county bus system. BCT provides for connections with the bus systems in other parts of the metropolitan area: Metrobus in Dade County and Palm Tran in Palm Beach County. Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of South Florida. In November 2006, Broward County voters rejected a one-cent-per-hundred sales tax increase intended to fund transportation projects such as light rail and expansion of the bus system.
Four railroads serve Fort Lauderdale. Florida East Coast Railroad (FEC) and CSX Transportation are freight lines, Amtrak provides passenger service to other cities on the Atlantic coast via the Fort Lauderdale station, and Tri-Rail provides commuter service between Palm Beach County, Broward County (including two stations in Fort Lauderdale), and Miami-Dade County. All Aboard Florida is constructing a new station in downtown Fort Lauderdale for its Brightline rail service connecting Miami and Orlando, Florida.
The Wave (streetcar), a new 2.7-mile (4.3 km) electric streetcar system costing $125 million, is being planned for the downtown. Most of the construction funding will come from federal ($62.5 million), state ($37 million) and city taxpayers ($10.5 million), with approximately $15 million from assessments on properties located within the Downtown Development Authority. Broward County (BCT) has committed to operating the system for the first 10 years at an expected annual cost of $2 million, and has guaranteed funding to cover any shortfall in ridership revenues. The construction cost of $50 million per mile is considerably higher than other recently built streetcar projects, in part due to the challenges of building an electric transit system over the 3rd Avenue drawbridge.
Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, near Dania Beach, Florida, is the city's main airport and is the fastest-growing major airport in the country. This is, in part, attributable to service by low-cost carriers such as Spirit Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Southwest Airlines and Virgin America, resulting in lower airfares than nearby Miami International Airport. Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood is an emerging international gateway for the Caribbean and Latin America. Miami International Airport and Palm Beach International Airport also serve the city.
Fort Lauderdale is home to Port Everglades, the nation's third busiest cruise port. It is Florida's deepest port, and is an integral petroleum receiving point. Fort Lauderdale is served by a regular international passenger ferry service to Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas operated by Baleària Bahamas Express. Broward County is served by three major Interstate Highways (I-75, I-95, I-595) and U.S. Highways such as U.S. 1, US 27 and US 441. The interchange between I-95 and I-595/SR 862 is known as the Rainbow Interchange. It is also served by Florida's Turnpike and State Highway 869, also known as the Sawgrass Expressway.
This section needs to be updated.(November 2017)
Fort Lauderdale is served by Broward General Medical Center and Imperial Point Medical Center, which are operated by Broward Health, the third largest hospital consortium in the United States. Broward General is a 716-bed acute care facility which is designated as a Level I trauma center. It is also home to Chris Evert Children's Hospital and a Heart Center of Excellence. The hospital serves as a major training site for medical students from Nova Southeastern University's College of Osteopathic Medicine, as well as nursing and paramedic programs from throughout the area. Imperial Point Medical Center is a 204-bed facility with a hyperbaric medicine program. Holy Cross Hospital, a 571-bed hospital operated by the Sisters of Mercy, was named by HealthGrades as one of the 50 best hospitals in the country for 2007.
Media and culture
Fort Lauderdale is served by English-language newspapers South Florida-Sun Sentinel and The Miami Herald, Spanish-language newspapers El Sentinel, El Nuevo Herald and an alternative newspaper New Times Broward-Palm Beach.
As is true of many parts of Florida, the city's population has a strong seasonal variation, as snowbirds from the northern United States, Canada, and Europe spend the winter and early spring in Florida. The city is known for its beaches, bars, nightclubs, and history as a spring break location, back in the 1960s and 1970s, for tens of thousands of college students. However, the city has actively discouraged college students from visiting the area since the mid-1980s, passing strict laws aimed at preventing the mayhem that occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. The city had an estimated 350,000 college visitors for spring break 1985; by 1989, that number had declined to about 20,000. Since the 1990s, Fort Lauderdale has increasingly become a location that caters to those seeking the resort lifestyle seasonally or year-round and is often a host city to many professional venues, concerts, and art shows.
Fort Lauderdale's arts and entertainment district, otherwise known as the Riverwalk Arts & Entertainment District, runs east-west along Las Olas Boulevard, from the beach to the heart of downtown. The district is anchored in the West by the Broward Center for the Performing Arts, and runs through the city to the intersection of Las Olas and A1A. This intersection is the "ground zero" of Fort Lauderdale Beach, and is the site of the Elbo Room bar featured in the 1960 film Where the Boys Are, which led in large measure to the city's former reputation as a spring break mecca. The city and its suburbs host over 4,100 restaurants and over 120 nightclubs, many of them in the arts and entertainment district. The city is also the setting for the 1986 movie Flight of the Navigator, and host of Langerado, an annual music festival. In 2013, the county welcomed about 1.3 million LGBT travelers who spent about $1.5 billion in area restaurants, hotels, attractions and shops, according to the Greater Fort Lauderdale Convention & Visitors Bureau.
Lockhart Stadium in Fort Lauderdale, is the current home of the Fort Lauderdale Strikers which play in the current incarnation of the North American Soccer League. It was previously the home of the original Fort Lauderdale Strikers, which played in the previous version of the North American Soccer League. The Miami Fusion of Major League Soccer played home games at this stadium from 1998 to 2001. The Florida Atlantic University Owls football team played its home games at Lockhart Stadium from 2003 through 2010.
Although Fort Lauderdale does not host any top division professional sports teams, the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League play at BB&T Center in suburban Sunrise. Major League Baseball's Miami Marlins, the National Football League's Miami Dolphins and the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association all play in neighboring Dade County.
The New York Yankees, Baltimore Orioles, and Kansas City Royals used to conduct spring training in the city at Fort Lauderdale Stadium, and NCAA Division I college sports teams of Florida International University and University of Miami play in Dade County. Florida Atlantic University's athletic programs are located in neighboring Palm Beach County.
Fort Lauderdale is also home to the Fort Lauderdale Aquatic Complex, which is located at the International Swimming Hall of Fame. It contains two 25-yard (23 m) by 50-meter competition pools, as well as one 20 by 25-yard (23 m) diving well. The complex is open to Fort Lauderdale residents, and has also been used in many different national and international competitions since its opening in 1965. 10 world records have been set there, from Catie Ball's 100 m breaststroke in 1966 to Michael Phelps' 400 m individual medley in 2002.
Sites of interest
Hugh Taylor Birch State Park is a 180-acre (0.73 km2) park along the beach, with nature trails, camping and picnicking areas, canoeing, and features the Terramar Visitor Center, with exhibits about the ecosystem of the park. Hugh Taylor Birch came to Florida in 1893. He purchased ocean-front property for about a dollar per acre, he eventually owned a 3.5-mile stretch of beachfront. The Bonnet House is a historic home in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States. Bonnet House's modern history began when Birch gave the Bonnet House property as a wedding gift to his daughter Helen and her husband, Chicago artist Frederic Clay Bartlett in 1919. The site was listed on the National Register of Historic places in 1984 and declared a historic landmark by the City of Fort Lauderdale in 2002.
Henry E. Kinney Tunnel on U.S. Route 1 is the only tunnel on a state road in the state of Florida. It was constructed in 1960, and its 864-foot (263 m) length travels underneath the New River and Las Olas Boulevard.
The Florida Everglades is a popular site of interest among visitors to Fort Lauderdale, although the city is roughly fifty miles away from the nearest border of the Everglades. Despite the distance, some services are available to bring visitors from Fort Lauderdale Beach to the Everglades. Just minutes from the beach is the Riverwalk Arts and Entertainment District in downtown Fort Lauderdale, home to cultural attractions, shops, parks and restaurants. Along Riverwalk, the brick-lined meandering promenade, discover the Broward Center for the Performing Arts, Museum of Discovery and Science with its AutoNation 3D IMAX Theater, Florida Grand Opera, Fort Lauderdale Historical Center, Stranahan House and the Museum of Art.
Las Olas Boulevard is a popular thoroughfare in downtown Fort Lauderdale that runs from Andrews Avenue in the Central Business District to A1A and Fort Lauderdale Beach. The boulevard is a popular attraction for locals and visitors, being ideally situated close to Fort Lauderdale beach, Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades. It is considered to be South Florida's most architecturally unique, authentic, and eclectic shopping and dining district.
In addition to its museums, beaches, and nightlife, Fort Lauderdale is home to the Fort Lauderdale Swap Shop, a large indoor/outdoor flea market and the site of the world's largest drive-in movie theater, with 13 screens.
- "City of Fort Lauderdale, FL: Vice Mayor Robert L. McKinzie". www.fortlauderdale.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "City of Fort Lauderdale, FL: City Commission". www.fortlauderdale.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "City of Fort Lauderdale, FL : About the City Manager's Office". www.fortlauderdale.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "City of Fort Lauderdale, FL : Board and Committee Information". www.fortlauderdale.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 7, 2017.
- "Fort Lauderdale, United States Page". Falling Rain Genomics. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida Zip Code Boundary Map (FL)". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Fort Lauderdale city, Florida". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- "2012 Year-End Statistics". Greater Fort Lauderdale Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Old Fort Lauderdale Museum-Sneak Preview". Fort Lauderdale Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 23, 2003. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- Hughes, Kenneth J (1993). "Three Tequesta and Seminole hunting camps on the edge of the Everglades" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 16 (3 and 4). pp. 31–42. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- McGoun, Bill (1978). "A History of Broward County" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 2 (3 and 4). pp. 15–22. Retrieved 2007-07-03.
- "Coastal History – The Seminole War Period". Vone Research. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Butler, Stuart (1981). "Records in the Military Archives Division Which Relate to South Florida" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 4 (1 and 2). pp. 11–20. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- "The Creation of Broward County: Victory in Tallahassee" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 11 (3 and 4). 1988. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 2007-07-02.
- Kirk, Cooper (1985). "Foundations of Broward County Waterways" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 8 (1 and 2). pp. 2–18. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- "Top 10 Weather Events-Broward County". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- "Negro is Lynched by Mob in Florida". New York Times. 20 July 1935.
- "Nazi Press Scorns U.S. on Lynch Horrors". The Pittsburgh Courier. 10 August 1935.
- George, Paul S. (1991). "Submarines and Soldiers: Fort Lauderdale in World War II" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 14 (1 and 2). pp. 2–14. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- William G. Crawford, Jr. "The Long Hard Fight for Equal Rights: A History of Broward County's Colored Beach and the Fort Lauderdale Beach 'Wade-ins' of the Summer of 1961" (PDF). p. 30.
- Deborah Work, My Soul Is a Witness: A History of Black Fort Lauderdale, pp. 138-48
- "Greater Fort Lauderdale 2006 Statistics" (Press release). Greater Fort Lauderdale Convention and Visitors Bureau. March 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
- "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-07-11.[dead link]
- "Census of Population:1960 Florida-Volume I Part 11" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. pp. 11–9. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- George, Paul S. (1991). "Downtown Fort Lauderdale: Its Demise and Renaissance in the Post-War Era" (PDF). Broward Legacy (Broward County Historical Commission). 14 (3 and 4). pp. 9–19. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- "1970 Census of Population" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- "1980 Census of Population" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. pp. 11–20. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- "Broward by the Numbers:Unincorporated Broward" (PDF). Broward County Planning Services Division. December 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- "About Fort Lauderdale". City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- "Fort Lauderdale Beach". City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original on 2007-07-05. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- "Tire reef off Florida proves a disaster". Associated Press. February 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- Loney, Jim (July 9, 2007). "Florida Raises Ill-Fated Artificial Reefs". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
- "Neighborhood Organization Recognition Program". City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Neighborhood Associations" (PDF). City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-01. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification Map of North America".
- "Historical Weather for Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States of America – Travel, Vacation and Reference Information". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
- "Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport Equals All Time High Temperature Record June 22; Daily Records Fall at Miami and West Palm Beach" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Lardner Jr., George; Meyers, Robert. "Miami Is Hit by First Recorded Snow: State of Emergency Is Eyed for Virginia Thousands Idled as Cold Closes Factories, Businesses". The Washington Post. January 20, 1977. p. A1. "It also snowed in Fort Lauderdale, Palm Beach, Fort Myers, and yes, even in the Bahamas."
- South Florida Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.) January 19, 2007.
- "Frequently Asked Questions- When are major hurricanes likely to strike different states?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
- "Station Name: FL FT LAUDERDALE HOLLYWOOD AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
- "CLIMATOLOGICAL RECORDS FOR FORT LAUDERDALE, FL" (PDF). NWS Miami-South Florida. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 - 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 - 2010 Demographic Profile Data". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 - 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Fort Lauderdale, Florida: SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Ancestry Map of Haitian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Broward County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- "Modern Language Association Data Center Results, Fort Lauderdale, Florida". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on July 31, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- The Miami Herald. "Steve Rothaus' Gay South Florida". Miamiherald.typepad.com. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- Ost, Jason. "Facts and Findings from The Gay and Lesbian Atlas". Urban.org. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- Lee, Gary (15 May 2005). "Where the Boys Are, Part 2: Watch out, South Beach. Fort Lauderdale is making its moves as a top gay spot". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- "Hotels « Categories « Gay Fort Lauderdale Guide Gay Ft. Lauderdale Hotels". Gayftlauderdale.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- George, Paul S. (1991). "Where the boys were" (PDF). South Florida History Magazine (1). Historical Association of Southern Florida. pp. 5–8. Retrieved 16 November 2017 – via HistoryMiami.
- "Fort Lauderdale Travel Guide". Fodor's. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- "Fact Sheet-Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center". Greater Fort Lauderdale Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
- "Fall 2006 newsletter:The Way We Were" (PDF) (Press release). Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center. Fall 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
- "Las Olas Boulevard needs help, yet Mayor Seiler does nothing". A Better Fort Lauderdale: New Visions for Our City. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Owers, Paul. "Developers look to revive stretch of New River in Fort Lauderdale". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- "SkyscraperPage.com". Retrieved September 2, 2010. Other improvements include a wide array of new boutiques, art galleries, and restaurants.
- "Report: Fort Lauderdale, Miami high in foreclosures per household". South Florida Business Journal. November 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
- Cantanese Center for Urban and Environmental Studies (January 2005). "Interim Boat Facility Siting Plan" (PDF). Draft. Broward County Environmental Protection Department: 38. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
- "World's Largest Boat Show Opens amid Cautious Optimism". Business Wire. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Visitor numbers Archived July 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., International Federation of Boat Show Organisers (IFBSO)
- "47th Annual Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show". City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
- "Largest Employers in Broward County" (PDF). The Broward Alliance. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
- "Dania Beach city, Florida Archived August 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- "Contact Us". 19 April 2009. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009.
- Pasztor, Andy and Susan Carey. "Gulfstream Faces Penalty on Pilot Hours, Maintenance." The Wall Street Journal. May 21, 2009. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- "Fort Lauderdale Ranks High on WalletHub's Lists of Best Places Jobs".
- "Fort Lauderdale Municipal Code Sec. 3.02. Creation, composition and term of commission". Municipal Code Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Mayor Jim Naugle". City of Fort Lauderdale. Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
- [permanent dead link]
- "ALRIDGE Post Office™ Location". 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
- "COLEE Post Office™ Location". 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
- "CORAL RIDGE Post Office™ Location". 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
- "GATEWAY Post Office™ Location". 15 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012.
- "MELROSE VISTA Post Office™ Location". 15 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012.
- "SOUTHSIDE Post Office™ Location". 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
- "FCAT School Grades—Elementary". Broward County Public Schools. Archived from the original on 2004-06-18. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "FCAT School Grades—Middle". Broward County Public Schools. Archived from the original on 2004-06-18. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "FCAT School Grades—High". Broward County Public Schools. Archived from the original on 2004-06-18. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Opportunity Scholarship Program". Florida Department of Education. Archived from the original on 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Newsroom". Kaplan. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "2006 Elections-Funding for county-wide transportation improvements". Broward County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Fierro, David (October 10, 2006). "Broward county voters will vote on transit tax Nov. 7". Florida Transportation Monthly. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "The Wave homepage". The Wave. Archived from the original on 2016-01-21.
- "Orlando surpasses Miami as Florida's busiest airport". Associated Press. February 15, 2005. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- Maynard, Micheline (January 2, 2005). "Lower fares shift traffic to less-used airports". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
- "Port Everglades". Broward County, Florida. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- "Port Everglades-Petroleum". Broward County, Florida. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- "Quick Facts". North Broward Hospital District. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
- "BGMC Services". North Broward Hospital District. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
- "Center for Wound Care & Hyperbaric Medicine". North Broward Hospital District. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "History of Holy Cross Hospital". Holy Cross Hospital. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "HealthGrades-America's 50 Best Hospitals". HealthGrades, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Lawlor, Julia (2 February 2007). "Snowbirds flock together for winter". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
- Marsh, Bill (19 March 2006). "The innocent birth of the spring bacchanal". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
- Weber, Janelle (30 March 2001). "Fort Lauderdale says goodbye to wild, youthful spring breaks". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- "Lockhart Stadium". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- Harwitt, Sandra (October 23, 2011). "New FAU stadium can't help winless Owls". Miami Herald. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "History of BankAtlantic Center". BankAtlantic Center. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Ballpark Information:Dolphin Stadium". Florida Marlins/Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Stadium Guide for the 2007 Miami Dolphins Season". Miami Dolphins. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Spring Training:Ballpark Information". Baltimore Orioles/Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Recordhistorie Wereldrecords dames(50m):100 meter schoolslag" (in Dutch). Zwemkroniek. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- "Recordhistorie Wereldrecords heren (50m):400 meter wisselslag" (in Dutch). Zwemkroniek. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- "Enter to Win COMPLEXITY VIP EXPERIENCE Presented by DraftKings!".
- "ISHOF Museum". International Swimming Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Florida State Parks—Hugh Taylor Birch State Recreation Area". Florida Division of Recreation and Parks. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Florida State Parks". Florida State Parks. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- "Ft. Lauderdale Bonnet House Museum and Gardens Historic Estate History". Bonnethouse.org. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- "KidZone—Henry E. Kinney Tunnel". Florida State Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- "Everglades Tours in Fort Lauderdale". Destinationlauderdale.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- "Things to Do in Fort Lauderdale | Attractions, Shopping & Tours". Sunny.org. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- "Official Website of Las Olas BoulevardLas Olas Boulevard". Lasolasboulevard.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- Rowe, Sean (November 5, 1998). "The Sultan of Swap". Miami New Times. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- Sweeney, Dan (December 21, 2017). "Fort Lauderdale African-American cemetery added to historic register". Sun-Sentinel.
- "National Register of Historical Places - FLORIDA (FL), Broward County". Nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- "Haus von Bugsy Siegel - Picture of Carrie B Cruises, Fort Lauderdale". TripAdvisor. 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- McCaughan, Sean (2013-06-24). "And Now, The 38 Essential Miami/South Florida Hotels - Curbed Miami". Miami.curbed.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.