Fu'an dialect

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Fu'an dialect
Native to Southern China
Region Ningde, Fu'an, Shouning, Zhouning and Zherong, Fujian province
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6 fuua
Glottolog None

The Fu'an dialect (福安話) is a dialect of Eastern Min, which is a branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the eastern part of Fujian Province.

The Fu'an dialect covers two city and three counties: Ningde, Fu'an, Shouning, Zhouning and Zherong County.

Phonology[edit]

Fu'an dialect has 18 initials, 50 rimes and 7 tones.

Initials[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p t k ʔ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative (β) (f) θ (ʒ) (ç) x
Affricate ts tsʰ
Lateral l
Approximant j ɰ

Rimes[edit]

Open syllable i u e ɛ ø œ o ɔ a
ui ei ɔi ai
uai
iu eu ɛu ou au
iau
Nasal coda
(in, im)

(un, um)
øŋ
(øn, øm)
œŋ
(œn, œm)

(an, am)
ioŋ
(ion, iom)
iaŋ
(ian, iam)
uaŋ
(uan, uam)
ɛŋ
(ɛn, ɛm)
ouŋ
(oun, oum)
ɔuŋ
(ɔun, ɔum)
Glottal coda øʔ œʔ ɔʔ
ioʔ iaʔ
uaʔ
eiʔ ɛiʔ ouʔ ɔuʔ
Nasal ŋ̍ hŋ̍

Tones[edit]

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tone name dark level
陰平
light level
陽平
rising
上聲
dark departing
陰去
light departing
陽去
dark entering
陰入
light entering
陽入
Tone contour ˧˧˨ 332 ˨˨ 22 ˦˨ 42 ˧˥ 35 ˨˧ 23 ˥ 5 ˨ 2

Perseverative assimilation[edit]

The Coda of the Former Syllable The initial assimilation of the Latter Syllable
Null coda
  • /k/, /kʰ/ and /h/ change to null initial;
  • /ts/, /tsʰ/ and /s/ change to null initial, /l/ or /ʒ/.
coda /-ŋ/
  • /t/, /tʰ/ change to /n/;
  • /p/, /pʰ/ change to /m/;
  • /k/, /kʰ/ and /h/ change to /ŋ/;
  • /ts/, /tsʰ/ and /s/ change to /ŋ/, /n/ or /ʒ/.
coda /-k̚/
  • /t/, /tʰ/ change to /l/;
  • /k/, /kʰ/ and /h/ change to null initial;
  • /ts/, /tsʰ/ and /s/ change to null initial, /l/ or /ʒ/.

Anticipatory assimilation[edit]

Tone sandhi[edit]

The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below (the rows give the first syllable's original citation tone, while the columns give the citation tone of the second syllable):

dark level
332
light level
22
rising
42
dark departing
35
light departing
23
dark entering
5
light entering
2
dark level
332
55 55 44 44
light level
22
332 35+42 55 44 44
rising
42
23+332 35+42 55 44 44
dark departing
35
55 55 44 44
light departing
23
55 55 44 44
dark entering
5
55 55 44 44
light entering
2
35+5 55 44 44

References[edit]