Fugaku (supercomputer)

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Fugaku
ActiveFrom 2021
SponsorsMEXT
OperatorsRIKEN
LocationRIKEN Center for Computational Science (R-CCS)
Architecture
Operating systemCustom Linux-based kernel
MemoryHBM2 32 GiB/node
Storage
  • 1.6 TB NVMe SSD/16 nodes (L1)
  • 150 PB Shared Lustre FS (L2)[1]
  • Cloud storage services (L3)
Speed415 PFLOPS (per TOP500 Rmax)
CostUS$1 billion (total programme cost)[2][3]
RankingTOP500: 1, June 2020
Web sitewww.r-ccs.riken.jp/en/fugaku
SourcesFugaku System Configuration
PRIMEHPC FX1000 (Fugaku node) at SC19

Fugaku (Japanese: 富岳) — named after an alternative name for Mount Fuji — is a petascale[citation needed] supercomputer at the RIKEN Center for Computational Science in Kobe, Japan. It started development in 2014 as the successor to the K computer, and it is scheduled to start operating in 2021,[4] although parts of the computer were put into operation in June 2020.[5] It is the fastest supercomputer in the world in the TOP500 list.[6]

Hardware[edit]

The supercomputer is built with the Fujitsu A64FX microprocessor. This CPU is based on the ARM version 8.2A processor architecture, and adopts the Scalable Vector Extensions for supercomputers.[7] Fugaku was aimed to be about 100 times more powerful than the K computer (i.e. a performance target of 1 exaFLOPS) and have a high level of practicability in the world.[8][9] Fugaku uses 158,976 A64FX CPUs joined together using Fujitsu's proprietary torus fusion interconnect.[6]

The final reported performance of Fugaku is a Rpeak of 0.54 exaFLOPS in the FP64 used by the TOP500.[6]

Software[edit]

Fugaku will use a "light-weight multi-kernel operating system" named IHK/McKernel. The operating system uses both Linux and the McKernel light-weight kernel operating simultaneously and side-by-side. The infrastructure that both kernels run on is termed the Interface for Heterogeneous Kernels (IHK). The high-performance simulations are run on McKernel, with Linux available for all other POSIX-compatible services.[10][11][12]

History[edit]

On May 23, 2019, RIKEN announced that the supercomputer was to be named Fugaku.[13] In August 2019, the logo for Fugaku was unveiled; it depicts Mount Fuji, symbolising "Fugaku's high performance" and "the wide range of its users".[4][14] In November 2019, the prototype of Fugaku won first place in the Green500 list.[15][16] Shipment of the equipment racks to the RIKEN facility began on December 2, 2019,[17] and was completed on May 13, 2020.[18] In June 2020, Fugaku became the fastest supercomputer in the world in the TOP500 list, displacing the IBM Summit.[6]

Cost[edit]

In 2018 Nikkei reported the programme would cost ¥130 billion (c. US$1 billion ).[3] The cost of the programme has caused significant controversy: in June 2020 the New York Times reported criticism of the expense, and that similar near-future exascale supercomputers would cost less and overtake Fugaku's performance.[2]

Comparison[edit]

Performance and cost comparison chart against computers ranked #1 in TOP500
Name Start Year End Year Performance
PFLOPS)[note 1]
Cost
(Million USD)
TOP500 Ranking CPU/GPU Vendor CPU OS
Fugaku 2020 - 415 1213[3][note 2] June 2020 1st Fujitsu A64FX Custom Linux-based kernel
Summit 2018 - 148 300[19] June 2018 to November 2019 1st IBM, NVIDIA POWER9, Tesla Linux (RedHat)
Sierra 2018 - 94 November 2018 to November 2019 2nd
Sunway TaihuLight 2016 - 93 280[20] June 2016 to November 2017 1st NRCPC Sunway SW26010 Linux (Raise)
K 2011 2019 10 1045[21] June 2011 - November 2011 1st Fujitsu SPARC64 VIIIfx Linux
  1. ^ This is based on the TOP500 Rmax measurement using the LINPACK benchmark at FP64 precision
  2. ^ This is the total programme cost rather, involving the creation of the technologies, rather than just for the machine

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Post-K (Fugaku) Information". Fujitsu. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  2. ^ a b Clark, Don (22 June 2020). "Japanese Supercomputer Is Crowned World's Speediest". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Takei, Tomohisa (14 September 2018). "お値段1300億円のポスト「京」、IT業界は今度こそ生かせるか". 日経クロステック(xTECH) (in Japanese). Nikkei. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b "スーパーコンピュータ「富岳」プロジェクト" (in Japanese). 理化学研究所. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  5. ^ "Supercomputer Fugaku, named after Mt. Fuji, makes its debut". The Asahi Shimbun. 2020-06-16. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  6. ^ a b c d Cutress, Dr Ian (22 June 2020). "New #1 Supercomputer: Fujitsu's Fugaku and A64FX take Arm to the Top with 415 PetaFLOPs". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  7. ^ "ポスト「京」のCPUの仕様を公表" (in Japanese). 富士通. 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  8. ^ "スパコン「京」後継機は「富岳」 計算性能100倍、21年稼働". 毎日新聞 (in Japanese). 2019-05-23. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  9. ^ "Fugaku Remakes Exascale Computing In Its Own Image". 2019-12-09. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  10. ^ "Outline of the Development of the Supercomputer Fugaku". RIKEN Center for Computational Science. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  11. ^ "McKernel". RIKEN. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  12. ^ mckernel on GitHub
  13. ^ "ポスト「京」の名称 「富岳(ふがく)」に決定" (in Japanese). 理化学研究所. 2019-05-23. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  14. ^ "R-CCS announced the Fugaku logo | RIKEN Center for Computational Science RIKEN Website". www.r-ccs.riken.jp. RIKEN Center for Computational Science. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  15. ^ "November 2019". TOP500.org. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
  16. ^ "Fugaku prototype named greenest supercomputer". RIKEN. 2019-11-18. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
  17. ^ "Fujitsu Begins Shipping Supercomputer Fugaku". Fujitsu. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  18. ^ "Delivery of the Supercomputer Fugaku has been Completed". RIKEN Center for Computational Science. 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  19. ^ 3億2500万ドルスパコン「TOP500」、IBM製「Summit」で米が中国を抜き首位に返り咲き
  20. ^ 開発費 約18億元 頂上極めた「富岳」の次の挑戦、日本が強い分野の開発に生かせるか
  21. ^ 「2位じゃダメ」のスパコン京、見納め 6年超す長寿で

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
IBM Summit
World's most powerful supercomputer
June 2020 -
Incumbent