Jump to content


Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Province of Fujian
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)
 • AbbreviationFJ / (pinyin: Mǐn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bân)
 • FoochowHók-gióng
 • Hokkien POJHok-kiàn
(clockwise from top)
Map showing the location of Fujian province
Map showing the location of Fujian province
Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3
Country People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Kinmen, Matsu and Wuqiu)[note 1]
Jiangnandong Circuit626
Fujian Circuit985
Partition of Taiwan1887
Fujian People's Government1933–1934
Division of Fujian17 August 1949
Named for : Fuzhou
Jiàn: Jianzhou
Largest cityQuanzhou
 - Prefecture-level
 - County-level
 - Township-

9 prefectures
84 counties[note 2]
1102 towns and subdistricts[note 2]
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyFujian Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryZhou Zuyi
 • Congress ChairmanZhou Zuyi
 • GovernorZhao Long
 • Provincial CPPCC ChairmanTeng Jiacai
 • National People's Congress Representation74 deputies
 • Total121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)
 • Rank23rd
Highest elevation2,158 m (7,080 ft)
 • Total41,540,086
 • Rank15th
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
  • Rank14th
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
 • Languages and dialectsMin (inc. Fuzhounese, Eastern Min, Northern Min, Central Min, Pu-Xian Min, Hokkien and others), Mandarin, She, Hakka
GDP (2023)[3]
 • TotalCN¥ 5,436 billion (8th)
US$ 771 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 129,865 (4th)
US$ 18,429
ISO 3166 codeCN-FJ
HDI (2021)0.775[4] (9th) – high
Websitewww.fujian.gov.cn Edit this at Wikidata (in Chinese)
"Fujian" in Chinese characters
Literal meaning"Fu(zhou) and Jian(zhou)"
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning[the Min River]

Fujian[a] is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou and its largest city by population is Quanzhou, other notable cities include the port city of Xiamen and Zhangzhou. Fujian is located on the west coast of the Taiwan Strait as the closest geographically and culturally to Taiwan. Certain islands such as Kinmen are only approximately 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Xiamen in Fujian.

While its population is predominantly identify Han ethnicity, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. The dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most commonly spoken within the province, including the Fuzhou dialect and Eastern Min of Northeastern Fujian province and various Southern Min and Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian. The capital city of Fuzhou and Fu'an of Ningde prefecture along with Cangnan county-level city of Wenzhou prefecture in Zhejiang province make up the Min Dong linguistic and cultural region of Northeastern Fujian. Hakka Chinese is also spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian. Min dialects, Hakka and Standard Chinese are mutually unintelligible. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines speak Southern Min (or Hokkien).

With a population of 41.5 million, Fujian ranks 15th in population among Chinese provinces. In 2022, Fujian's GDP reached CN¥5.31 trillion (US$790 billion by nominal GDP), ranking 4th in East China region and 8th nationwide in GDP.[6] Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥126,829 (US$18,856 in nominal), the second highest GDP per capita of all Chinese provinces after Jiangsu.[6] It has benefited from its geographical proximity with Taiwan. As a result of the Chinese Civil War, a small proportion of Historical Fujian is now within the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan). The Fujian province of the ROC consists of three offshore archipelagos, namely the Kinmen Islands, the Matsu Islands, and the Wuqiu Islands.

Fujian is considered one of China's leading provinces in education and research. As of 2023, two major cities in the province ranked in the top 45 cities in the world (Xiamen 38th and Fuzhou 45th) by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index.[7]


The name Fujian (福建) originated from the combination of the city names of Fuzhou (福州) and nearby Jianzhou (建州, or present-day Nanping (南平)).


Prehistoric Fujian[edit]

Recent archaeological discoveries in 2011 demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC.[8] From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, which is definitive evidence of weaving.

The Tanshishan (曇石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黃土崙) site (c. 1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.

Tianlong Jiao (2013)[9] notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B.P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on mostly on fishing and hunting, along with limited agriculture.

There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang.[9]

  • Keqiutou culture (壳丘头文化; c. 6000 – c. 5500 BP, or c. 4050 – c. 3550 BC)
  • Tanshishan culture (昙石山文化; c. 5000 – c. 4300 BP, or c. 3050 – c. 2350 BC)
  • Damaoshan culture (大帽山文化; c. 5000 – c. 4300 BP)
  • Huangguashan culture (黄瓜山文化; c. 4300 – c. 3500 BP, or c. 2350 – c. 1550 BC)

There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were highly distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures.[9] These are the Niubishan culture (牛鼻山文化) from 5000 to 4000 years ago, and the Hulushan culture (葫芦山文化) from 2050 to 1550 BC.

Minyue kingdom[edit]

Map of Minyue

Fujian was also where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), which is perhaps an ethnic name (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: mán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably older.

Qin dynasty[edit]

The Qin deposed the King of Minyue, establishing instead a paramilitary province there called Minzhong Commandery. Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status.[10]

Han dynasty[edit]

In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang. The Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu was victorious and founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.[11]

After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, primarily in the 2nd century BC. This was stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.

Fujian was part of the much larger Yang Province (Yangzhou), whose provincial capital was designated in Liyang (歷陽; present-day He County, Anhui).

The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

Jin era[edit]

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by civil wars and rebellions by tribal peoples from the north and west. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Chen (), Lin (), Huang (), Zheng (), Zhan (), Qiu (), He (), and Hu (). To this day, the first four remain the most popular surnames in Fujian.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" rebellions. The population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang (Western Liang), and Chen) reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

Sui and Tang dynasties[edit]

During the Sui and Tang eras a large influx of migrants settled in Fujian.[12][10]

During the Sui dynasty, Fujian was again part of Yang Province.

During the Tang, Fujian was part of the larger Jiangnan East Circuit, whose capital was at Suzhou. Modern-day Fujian was composed of around 5 prefectures and 25 counties.

The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China, which contributed to a boom in Fujian's culture and economy. Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw several political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting even larger waves of northerners to immigrate to the northern part of Fujian.

Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms[edit]

Situation of Fujian in 957

As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by Wang Brothers (Wang Chao, Wang Shengui [zh] and Wang Shenzhi), who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.[13]

Parts of northern Fujian were conquered by the Wuyue Kingdom to the north as well, including the Min capital Fuzhou.

Quanzhou city was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom[citation needed] and was the largest seaport in the world.[when?] For a long period its population was also greater than Fuzhou.[14][15]

Qingyuan Jiedushi was a military/governance office created in 949 by Southern Tang's second emperor Li Jing for the warlord Liu Congxiao, who nominally submitted to him but controlled Quan (泉州, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian) and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures in de facto independence from the Southern Tang state.[16] (Zhang Prefecture was, at times during the circuit's existence, also known as Nan Prefecture (南州).)[17] Starting in 960, in addition to being nominally submissive to Southern Tang, Qingyuan Circuit was also nominally submissive to Song, which had itself become Southern Tang's nominal overlord.[18]

Map showing the location of Qingyuan Circuit

After Liu's death, the circuit was briefly ruled by his biological nephew/adoptive son Liu Shaozi, who was then overthrown by the officers Zhang Hansi and Chen Hongjin. Zhang then ruled the circuit briefly, before Chen deposed him and took over.[17] In 978, with Song's determination to unify Chinese lands in full order, Chen decided that he could not stay de facto independent, and offered the control of the circuit to Song's Emperor Taizong, ending Qingyuan Circuit as a de facto independent entity.[19]

Song dynasty[edit]

The area was reorganized into the Fujian Circuit in 985, which was the first time the name "Fujian" was used for an administrative region.[citation needed]


Many Chinese migrated from Fujian's major ports to Vietnam's Red River Delta. The settlers then created Trần port and Vân Đồn.[20] Fujian and Guangdong Chinese moved to the Vân Đồn coastal port to engage in commerce.[21]

During the and Trần dynasties, many Chinese ethnic groups with the surname Trần (陳) migrated to Vietnam from what is now Fujian or Guangxi. They settled along the coast of Vietnam and the capital's southeastern area.[22] The Vietnamese Trần clan traces their ancestry to Trần Tự Minh (227 BC). He was a Qin General during the Warring state period who belonged to the indigenous Mân, a Baiyue ethnic group of Southern China and Northern Vietnam. Tự Minh also served under King An Dương Vương of Âu Lạc kingdom in resisting Qin's conquest of Âu Lạc. Their genealogy also included Trần Tự Viễn (582 - 637) of Giao Châu and Trần Tự An (1010 - 1077) of Đại Việt. Near the end of the 11th century the descendants of a fisherman named Trần Kinh, whose hometown was in Tức Mạc village in Đại Việt (Modern day Vietnam), would marry the royal Lý clan, which was then founded the Vietnam Tran Dynasty in the year 1225.[23]

In Vietnam, the Trần served as officials. The surnames are found in the Trần and Lý dynasty Imperial exam records.[24] Chinese ethnic groups are recorded in Trần and Lý dynasty records of officials.[25] Clothing, food, and languages were fused with the local Vietnamese in Vân Đồn district where the Chinese ethnic groups had moved after leaving their home province of what is now Fujian, Guangxi, and Guangdong.

In 1172, Fujian was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates from Taiwan or the Visayas, Philippines.[26]

Yuan dynasty[edit]

After the establishment of the Yuan dynasty, Fujian became part of Jiangzhe province, whose capital was at Hangzhou. From 1357 to 1366 Muslims in Quanzhou participated in the Ispah Rebellion, advancing northward and even capturing Putian and Fuzhou before the rebellion was crushed by the Yuan. Afterward, Quanzhou city lost foreign interest in trading and its formerly welcoming international image as the foreigners were all massacred or deported.

Yuan dynasty General Chen Youding, who had put down the Ispah Rebellion, continued to rule over the Fujian area even after the outbreak of the Red Turban Rebellion. Forces loyal to the eventual Ming dynasty founder Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) defeated Chen in 1367.[27]

Ming dynasty[edit]

After the establishment of the Ming dynasty, Fujian became a province, with its capital at Fuzhou. In the early Ming era, Fuzhou Changle was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550.[citation needed] Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by the Chinese military.

An account of the Ming dynasty Fujian was written by No In (Lu Ren 鲁认).[28][29]

The Pisheya appear in Quanzhou Ming era records.[30]

Qing dynasty[edit]

The late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of a large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan.

The sea ban implemented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water".

Incoming refugees did not translate into a major labor force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Many more Han Chinese then settled in Taiwan. Today, most Taiwanese are descendants of Hokkien people from Southern Fujian. Fujian and Taiwan were originally treated as one province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province), but starting in 1885, they split into two separate provinces.[31]

In the 1890s, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. In 1905–1907 Japan made overtures to enlarge its sphere of influence to include Fujian. Japan was trying to obtain French loans and also avoid the Open Door Policy. Paris provided loans on condition that Japan respects the Open Door principles and does not violate China's territorial integrity.[32]

Republic of China[edit]

Map of the Constitution Protection Region of Southern Fujian

The Xinhai revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty and brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China.

The anarchist Constitution Protection Region of Southern Fujian was established by Chen Jiongming from 1918 to 1920.

Fujian briefly established the independent Fujian People's Government in 1933. It was re-controlled by the Republic of China in 1934.

Fujian came under a Japanese sea blockade during World War II.

People's Republic of China[edit]

After the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China unified the country and took over most of Fujian, excluding the Quemoy and Matsu Islands.

In its early days, Fujian's development was relatively slow in comparison to other coastal provinces due to potential conflicts with Kuomintang-controlled Taiwan. Today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate while enjoying a high growth rate in the economy. The GDP per capita in Fujian is ranked 4-6th place among provinces of China in recent years.

Development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the overpopulated areas to Fujian's north and west, and much of the farmland and forest, as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu, have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings. Fujian faces challenges to sustain development[citation needed] while at the same time preserving Fujian's natural and cultural heritage.


Wuyi Mountains
Min River in Nanping

The province is mostly mountainous and is traditionally said to be "eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial-level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009.[33] Fujian's highest point is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2,157 metres (1.340 mi).

Fujian faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen, controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.

The Min River and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin and the Jiulong. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.

Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. The islands of Kinmen and Matsu are under the administration of the Republic of China.

Fujian contains several faults, the result of a collision between the Asiatic Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang fault zones in this area have annual displacement rates of 3–5 mm. They could cause major earthquakes in the future.[34]

Xiamen in Southeastern Fujian

Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).



Kuiqi interchange in Fuzhou

As of 2012, there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).[35]


Fuzhou train station

Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000, and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southernmost section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and link Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).

Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).[36]


The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport, Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming Shaxian Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers as of 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong Kong.[36]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):

Administrative divisions of Fujian
Division code[37] Division Area in km2[38] Population 2020[39] Seat Divisions[40]
Districts Counties CL cities
350000 Fujian Province 121,400.00 41,540,086 Fuzhou city 31 42 11
350100 Fuzhou city 12,155.46 8,291,268 Gulou District 6 6 1
350200 Xiamen city 1,699.39 5,163,970 Siming District 6
350300 Putian city 4,119.02 3,210,714 Chengxiang District 4 1
350400 Sanming city 22,928.79 2,486,450 Sanyuan District 2 8 1
350500 Quanzhou city 11,245.00 8,782,285 Fengze District 4 5* 3
350600 Zhangzhou city 12,873.33 5,054,328 Longwen District 4 7
350700 Nanping city 26,280.54 2,645,548 Jianyang District 2 5 3
350800 Longyan city 19,028.26 2,723,637 Xinluo District 2 4 1
350900 Ningde city 13,452.38 3,146,789 Jiaocheng District 1 6 2

* - including Kinmen County, ROC (Taiwan). Claimed by the PRC. (included in the total Counties' count)

All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast.

These nine prefecture-level cities are subdivided into 84 county-level divisions (31 districts, 11 county-level cities, and 42 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,102 township-level divisions (653 towns, 233 townships, 19 ethnic townships, and 195 subdistricts).

The People's Republic of China claims five of the six townships of Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as a county of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.[41][42][43]

The PRC claims Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Xiuyu District of the prefecture-level city of Putian.

Finally, the PRC claims Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands), Republic of China (Taiwan) as a township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou.

Together, these three groups of islands make up the Republic of China's Fujian province.

Urban areas[edit]

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# Cities 2020 Urban area[44] 2010 Urban area[45] 2020 City proper
1 Xiamen 4,617,251 3,119,110 5,163,970
2 Fuzhou[i] 3,723,454 2,824,414[ii] 8,291,268
3 Putian 1,539,389 1,107,199 3,210,714
4 Quanzhou[iii] 1,469,157 1,154,731 8,782,285
5 Jinjiang 1,416,151 1,172,827 see Quanzhou
6 Nan'an 936,897 718,516 see Quanzhou
7 Longyan 886,281 460,086[iv] 2,723,637
8 Zhangzhou 845,286 614,700 5,054,328
9 Fuqing 744,774 470,824 see Fuzhou
10 Shishi 589,902 469,969 see Quanzhou
11 Longhai 584,371 422,993 see Zhangzhou
12 Nanping 537,472 301,370[v] 2,680,645
13 Ningde 425,499 252,497 3,146,789
14 Fu'an 397,068 326,019 see Ningde
15 Sanming 378,423 328,766 2,486,450
16 Fuding 351,341 266,779 see Ningde
17 Yong'an 248,425 213,732 see Sanming
18 Jian'ou 226,100 192,557 see Nanping
19 Shaowu 217,836 183,457 see Nanping
20 Wuyishan 159,308 122,801 see Nanping
21 Zhangping 147462 113,739 see Longyan
Changle see Fuzhou 278,007[ii] see Fuzhou
Jianyang see Nanping 150,756[v] see Nanping
  1. ^ Does not include Beigan Township, Dongyin Township, Juguang Township, & Nangan Township (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  2. ^ a b New district established after 2010 census: Changle (Changle CLC). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ Does not include Kinmen County (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  4. ^ New district established after 2010 census: Yongding (Yongding County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after 2010 census: Jianyang (Jianyang CLC). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
Most populous cities in Fujian
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population[46]
Rank Municipal pop. Rank Municipal pop.
1 Xiamen 3,499,800 11 Nan'an 318,000 Quanzhou
2 Fuzhou 3,007,100 12 Ningde 282,200
3 Quanzhou 1,365,000 13 Sanming 241,200
4 Putian 771,000 14 Longhai 219,400
5 Zhangzhou 528,800 15 Fuding 178,000
6 Longyan 456,300 16 Yong'an 175,100
7 Fuqing 361,100 17 Fu'an 169,200
8 Nanping 356,600 18 Jian'ou 142,100
9 Shishi 355,800 19 Zhangping 129,300
10 Jinjiang 335,000 20 Shaowu 122,800


List of provincial-level leaders[edit]

CCP Party Secretaries[edit]

  1. Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): 1949–1954
  2. Ye Fei (叶飞): 1954–1958
  3. Jiang Yizhen (江一真): 1958–1970
  4. Han Xianchu (韩先楚): 1971–1973 
  5. Liao Zhigao (廖志高): 1974–1982
  6. Xiang Nan (项南): 1982–1986 
  7. Chen Guangyi (陈光毅): 1986–1993 
  8. Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): 1993–1996 
  9. Chen Mingyi (陈明义): 1996–2000 
  10. Song Defu (宋德福): 2000–2004
  11. Lu Zhangong (卢展工): 2004–2009 
  12. Sun Chunlan (孙春兰): 2009–2012
  13. You Quan (尤权): 2012–2017
  14. Yu Weiguo (于伟国): 2017–2020
  15. Yin Li (尹力): 2020–2022
  16. Zhou Zuyi (周祖翼): 2022–present

Chairpersons of Fujian People's Congress[edit]

  1. Liao Zhigao (廖志高): 1979–1982
  2. Hu Hong (胡宏): 1982–1985
  3. Cheng Xu (程序): 1985–1993
  4. Chen Guangyi (陈光毅): 1993–1994
  5. Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): 1994–1998
  6. Yuan Qitong (袁启彤): 1998–2002
  7. Song Defu (宋德福): 2002–2005
  8. Lu Zhangong (卢展工): 2005–2010
  9. Sun Chunlan (孙春兰): 2010–2013
  10. You Quan (尤权): 2013–2018
  11. Yu Weiguo (于伟国): 2018–2021
  12. Yin Li (尹力): 2021–2023
  13. Zhou Zuyi (周祖翼): 2023–present


  1. Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): 1949–1954
  2. Ye Fei (叶飞): 1954–1959
  3. Jiang Yizhen (江一真): 1959
  4. Wu Hongxiang (伍洪祥): acting: 1960–1962
  5. Jiang Yizhen (江一真): 1962
  6. Wei Jinshui (魏金水): 1962–1967
  7. Han Xianchu (韩先楚): 1967–1973
  8. Liao Zhigao (廖志高): 1974–1979
  9. Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): 1979–1983
  10. Hu Ping (胡平): 1983–1987
  11. Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): 1987–1990 
  12. Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): 1990–1994 
  13. Chen Mingyi (陈明义): 1994–1996 
  14. He Guoqiang (贺国强): 1996–1999 
  15. Xi Jinping (习近平): 1999–2002 
  16. Lu Zhangong (卢展工): 2002–2004
  17. Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): 2004–2011
  18. Su Shulin (苏树林): 2011–2015
  19. Yu Weiguo (于伟国): 2015–2018
  20. Tang Dengjie (唐登杰): 2018–2020
  21. Wang Ning (王宁): 2020–2021
  22. Zhao Long (赵龙): 2021–present


Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in Fujian province

Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces in China, with many industries spanning tea production, clothing, and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Fujian was one of the first provinces in China authorized by the central government to receive foreign investments.[47]: 148  Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK, and Panasonic.[48] Within Fujian, the city of Xiamen was one of China's first special economic zones ("SEZs").[47]: 158 

In 2022, Fujian's GDP was CN¥5.31 trillion (US$790 billion in nominal), ranking 8th in GDP nationwide and appearing in the world's top 20 largest sub-national economies.[6] Along with its coastal neighbours Zhejiang and Guangdong, Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥126,829 (US$18,856 in nominal), the second highest GDP per capita of all Chinese provinces after Jiangsu.[6] The primary, secondary and tertiary economy respectively contributed to ¥307 billion ($45.7 billion), ¥2.51 trillion ($372.8 billion), and ¥2.50 trillion ($371 billion) to Fujian's economy.[6]

Historical GDP of Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)[49]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[50])
year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millions real
GDPpc exchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
USD 1 Int'l$. 1
2016 2,881,060 433,744 822,948 8.4 74,707 11,247 21,339 6.6423 3.5009
2015 2,623,920 421,283 739,237 9.0 68,645 11,021 19,339 6.2284 3.5495
2014 2,429,260 395,465 684,221 9.9 64,097 10,434 18,053 6.1428 3.5504
2013 2,207,780 356,485 617,233 11.0 58,702 9,478 16,411 6.1932 3.5769
2012 1,988,380 314,991 559,981 11.4 53,250 8,436 14,997 6.3125 3.5508
2011 1,770,380 274,104 505,029 12.3 47,764 7,395 13,625 6.4588 3.5055
2010 1,484,580 219,304 448,432 13.9 40,320 5,956 12,179 6.7695 3.3106
2009 1,232,420 180,416 390,315 12.3 33,677 4,930 10,666 6.8310 3.1575
2008 1,088,940 156,793 342,779 13.0 29,938 4,311 9,424 6.9451 3.1768
2007 930,190 122,329 308,531 15.2 25,730 3,384 8,534 7.6040 3.0149
2006 762,740 95,680 265,052 14.8 21,226 2,663 7,376 7.9718 2.8777
2005 658,860 80,430 230,451 11.6 18,448 2,252 6,453 8.1917 2.8590
2000 376,454 45,474 138,438 9.3 11,194 1,352 4,117 8.2784 2.7193
1990 52,228 10,919 30,675 7.5 1,763 369 1,035 4.7832 1.7026
1980 8,706 5,810 5,821 18.4 348 232 233 1.4984 1.4955
1978 6,637 4,268 17.8 273 176 1.5550
1970 3,470 1,410 9.9 173 70 2.4618
1962 2,212 899 98.6 137 56 2.4618
1957 2,203 846 6.7 154 59 2.6040
1952 1,273 573 23.3 102 46 2.2227

In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley.[51] Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of its geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from the Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment.

Minnan Golden Triangle, which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou, accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.

Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan, which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.[52][53]

Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.

Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Mud clams, oysters, and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off Shuitou.[54]
  • Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Xiamen Export Processing Zone
  • Xiamen Free Trade Zone
  • Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese version)
  • Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area


The ethnic townships in Fujian

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."[55] In 2021, Fujian's population was estimated to be 41.87 million, with an urbanization rate of 69.7%.[6]

Fujianese who are legally classified as Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Min Chinese speakers make up the largest subgroups classified as Han Chinese in Fujian, such as Hoklo people, Fuzhounese people, Putian people and Fuzhou Tanka.

The Hakka, a Han Chinese people with their own distinct identity, live in the central and southwestern parts of Fujian. The She, an ethnic group scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.[56]

Many ethnic Chinese around the world (especially in Southeast Asia) trace their ancestries to the Fujianese branches of the Hoklo and Teochew peoples. Descendants of Southern Min-speaking emigrants make up the majorities of ethnic-Chinese populations in Taiwan, Singapore, Australia, Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia, and Philippines. Eastern Min-speaking people (especially Fuzhounese people) are one of the major sources of Chinese immigrants to the United States since the 1990s.[57]


Religion in Fujian[58][note 4]

  Christianity (3.5%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 5] (65.19%)

The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions, and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, just over 30% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion; 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian.[58] The reports did not give figures for other religions; 65.19% of the population may be irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, or Islam. Notably, Fujian is one of the only places in the world where Manichaeism is still practiced.[59]

In 2010, there were reportedly just under 116,000 Muslims in Fujian.[60]


Ancient temple in Fujian
Kompyang (房村光餅) sold on the streets of Fujian cities

Because of its mountainous nature and waves of migration from central China and assimilation of numerous foreign ethnic groups such as maritime traders in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse places in China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and the regional cultures and ethnic composition can be completely different from each other as well. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".[61] Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. Recent classifications subdivide Min into[62][63]

The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian. Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities,[61] although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.

Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.

Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).

Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes of tea, namely, oolong, white tea, and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. The English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien. Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.

Nanyin is a popular form of music of Fujian.

Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.


Stone Statue of Laozi.
Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County.

Fujian is home to several tourist attractions, including four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in China.

Cultural features[edit]

The Fujian Tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in southwest Fujian. These 46 buildings[64] were listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2008.

Gulangyu Island, Xiamen, is notable for its beaches, winding lanes, and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site in 2017. Also in Xiamen is the South Putuo Temple.

The Guanghua Temple is a Buddhist temple in Putian. It was built in the penultimate year of the Southern Chen Dynasty. Located in the northern half of the mouth of Meizhou Bay, it is about 1.8 nautical miles from the mainland and faces the Strait of Taiwan to the southeast. Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 miles of the beach area. Another Buddhist temple, Nanshan Temple is located in Zhangzhou.

The Kaiyuan Temple is a Buddhist temple in West Street, Quanzhou, the largest in Fujian province, with an area of 78,000 square metres (840,000 square feet).[65] Although it is known as both a Hindu and Buddhist temple, on account of added Tamil-Hindu influences, the main statue in the most important hall is that of Vairocana Buddha, the main Buddha according to Huayan Buddhism.

In the capital of Fuzhou is the Yongquan Temple, a Buddhist temple built during the Tang dynasty.

The Chongwu Army Temple honors twenty-seven fallen soldiers of the People's Liberation Army who died during an attack by Nationalist forces in 1949, including five who died shielding a teenage girl during the attack.[66] The site is frequented by locals and tourists.[67]

Around Meizhou Islands is the Matsu pilgrimage.

Natural features[edit]

Mount Taimu is a mountain and a scenic resort in Fuding. It offers a grand view of mountains and sea and is famous for its natural scenery including granite caves, odd-shaped stones, cliffs, clear streams, cascading waterfalls, and cultural attractions such as ancient temples and cliff Inscriptions.

The Danxia landform in Taining was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2010. It is a unique type of petrographic geomorphology found in China. Danxia landform is formed from red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates of largely Cretaceous age. The landforms look very much like karst topography that forms in areas underlain by limestones, but since the rocks that form danxia are sandstones and conglomerates, they have been called "pseudo-karst" landforms. They were formed by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion).

The Wuyi Mountains was the first location in Fujian to be listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999. They are a mountain range in the prefecture of Nanping and contain the highest peak in Fujian, Mount Huanggang. It is famous as a natural landscape garden and a summer resort in China.[68]

Notable individuals[edit]

The province and its diaspora abroad also have a tradition of educational achievement and have produced many important scholars, statesmen, and other notable people. These include people whose ancestral home (祖籍) is Fujian (their ancestors originated from Fujian). In addition to the below list, many notable individuals of Han Chinese descent in Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere have ancestry that can be traced to Fujian.

Some notable individuals include (in rough chronological order):

Han, Tang, and Song dynasties

Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties

20th-21st century


Fujian includes professional sports teams in both the Chinese Basketball Association and the Chinese League One.

The representative of the province in the Chinese Basketball Association is the Fujian Sturgeons, who are based in Jinjiang, Quanzhou. The Fujian Sturgeons made their debut in the 2004–2005 season, and finished in seventh and last place in the South Division, out of the playoffs. In the 2005–2006 season, they tied for fifth, just one win away from making the playoffs.

The Xiamen Blue Lions formerly represented Fujian in the Chinese Super League, before the team's closure in 2007. Today the province is represented by Fujian Tianxin F.C., who play in the China League Two, and the Fujian Broncos.

Education and research[edit]

Fujian is considered one of China's leading provinces in education and research. As of 2023, two major cities in the province ranked in the top 45 cities in the world (Xiamen 38th and Fuzhou 45th) by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index.[7]

High schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]




See also[edit]


  1. ^ As a result of the Chinese Civil War, a small proportion of Historical Fujian is now within the Republic of China (ROC). The Fujian province of the ROC consists of three offshore archipelagos namely the Kinmen Islands, the Matsu Islands and the Wuqiu Islands. See Fuchien Province, Republic of China for more details.
  2. ^ a b These are the official PRC numbers as of 2022 from Fujian Provincial Statistic Bureau. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
  3. ^ If included the islands of Kinmen, Matsu and Wuqiu, claimed by the PRC but administered by the Republic of China (ROC) as part of its streamlined Fujian Province, the total area overall is 121,580 square kilometres (46,940 sq mi) in Fujian.
  4. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[58] to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  5. ^ This may include:



  1. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. ^ "zh: 2023年福建省国民经济和社会发展统计公报". fujian.gov.cn. March 14, 2024. Retrieved June 19, 2024.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  5. ^ "Fujian". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "National Data". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on January 9, 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Leading 200 science cities | Nature Index 2023 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2023-11-22.
  8. ^ Rolett, Barry V.; Zheng, Zhuo; Yue, Yuanfu (April 2011). "Holocene sea-level change and the emergence of Neolithic seafaring in the Fuzhou Basin (Fujian, China)". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (7): 788–797. Bibcode:2011QSRv...30..788R. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.01.015.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b c Jiao, Tianlong. 2013. "The Neolithic Archaeology of Southeast China." In Underhill, Anne P., et al. A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, 599-611. Wiley-Blackwell.
  10. ^ a b Britannica
  11. ^ Fuijan. Britannica.com.
  12. ^ Yeung, Yue-man; Shen, Jianfa (2008). The Pan-Pearl River Delta: An Emerging Regional Economy in a Globalizing China. Chinese University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9789629963767. Archived from the original on April 18, 2022. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  13. ^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ 伊本・白图泰(著)、马金鹏(译),《伊本・白图泰游记》,宁夏人民出版社,2005年
  15. ^ 中国网事:千年古港福建"泉州港"被整合改名引网民争议. Xinhua News. Archived from the original on October 9, 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
  16. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 288.
  17. ^ a b History of Song, vol. 483.
  18. ^ Xu Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 1.
  19. ^ Xu Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 9.
  20. ^ Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0. Archived from the original on August 25, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  21. ^ Philippe Truong (2007). The Elephant and the Lotus: Vietnamese Ceramics in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. MFA Pub. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87846-717-4. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  22. ^ Hall (1 January 1955). Secondary Cities & Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, c. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3043-8. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  23. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 9780684189017. Archived from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  24. ^ Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  25. ^ Geoffrey C. Gunn (1 August 2011). History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-988-8083-34-3. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  26. ^ http://www.filipiknow.net/visayan-pirates-in-china/ Archived August 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine https://archive.org/details/cu31924023289345 Archived November 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine https://archive.org/stream/cu31924023289345#page/n181/mode/2up Archived April 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine pp. 165-166. http://nightskylie.blogspot.com/2015/07/philippine-quarterly-of-culture-and.html Archived October 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ The Great Ming Code / Da Ming lu. University of Washington Press. September 2012. ISBN 9780295804002. Archived from the original on April 18, 2022. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  28. ^ "朝鲜人笔下的十六世纪末福建面貌_江苏频道_凤凰网". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  29. ^ https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/29740/1/Han_Hee_Yeon_C_201105_PhD_thesis.pdf Archived January 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine pp. 269-271.
  30. ^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512
  31. ^ Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0.
  32. ^ Seung-young Kim, "Open Door or Sphere of Influence?: The Diplomacy of the Japanese–French Entente and Fukien Question, 1905–1907." International History Review 41#1 (2019): 105-129; see also Review by Noriko Kawamura in H-DIPLO. Archived January 24, 2022, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Forestry in Fujian Province". English.forestry.gov.cn. January 21, 2010. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  34. ^ Guo, Jianming; Xu, Shiyang; Fan, Hailong (2017-05-05). "Neotectonic interpretations and PS-InSAR monitoring of crustal deformations in the Fujian area of China". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 126–132. Bibcode:2017OGeo....9...10G. doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0010. ISSN 2391-5447.
  35. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  36. ^ a b "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  37. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Simplified Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  38. ^ Shenzhen Statistical Bureau. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29.[circular reference]
  39. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.[circular reference]
  40. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Simplified Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  41. ^ 2018年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:泉州市 (in Simplified Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2019. 统计用区划代码 名称{...}350527000000 金门县{...}
  42. ^ 建治沿革 (in Simplified Chinese). Quanzhou People's Government. Retrieved 10 August 2019. 民国3年7月,金门自思明县析出置县,隶属厦门道。{...}民国22年(1933){...}12月13日,四省分别更名为闽海、延建、兴泉、龙汀。兴泉省辖莆田、仙游、晋江、南安、安溪、惠安、同安、金门、永春、德化、大田、思明十二县 ,治设晋江(今泉州市区)。{...}民国23年7月,全省设立十个行政督察区,永春、德化、惠安属第四行政督察区(专署驻仙游),晋江、南安、安溪、金门属第五行政督察区(专署驻同安)。民国24年(1935)10月,全省改为7个行政督察区、l市。惠安、晋江、南安、金门、安溪、永春、德化属第四区(专署驻同安)。民国26年4月,南安县治徙溪美。10月,日本侵略军攻陷金门岛及烈屿,金门县政府迁到大嶝乡。{...}民国27年(1938){...}8月,金门县政务由南安县兼摄。{...}民国32年(1943)9月,全省调整为8个行政督察区、2个市。第四区专署仍驻永春,下辖永春、安溪、金门、南安、晋江、惠安等九县。德化改属第六区(专署驻龙岩)。 {...}1949年8月24日,福建省人民政府(省会福州)成立。8、9月间,南安、永春、惠安、晋江、安溪相继解放。9月, 全省划为八个行政督察区。9月9日,第五行政督察专员公署成立,辖晋江、南安、同安、惠安、安溪、永春、仙游、莆田、金门(待统一)等九县。公署设晋江县城(今泉州市区)。10月9日,金门县大嶝岛、小嶝岛及角屿解放。11月24日,德化解放,归入第七行政督察区(专署驻永安县)。  1950年{...}10月17日,政务院批准德化县划归晋江区专员公署管辖;1951年1月正式接管。至此, 晋江区辖有晋江、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、莆田、仙游、惠安、金门(待统一)十县。{...}1955年3月12日,奉省人民委员会令,晋江区专员公署改称晋江专员公署,4月1日正式实行。同年5月,省人民政府宣布成立金门县政府。{...}1970年{...}6月18日,福建省革命委员会决定实行。于是,全区辖有泉州市及晋江、惠安、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、金门(待统一)八县。同年12月25日,划金门县大嶝公社归同安县管辖。{...}1992年3月6日,国务院批准,晋江撤县设市,领原晋江县行政区域,由泉州代管。1992年5月1日。晋江市人民政府成立,至此,泉州市计辖l区、2市、6县:鲤城区、石狮市、晋江市、惠安县、南安县、安溪县、永春县、德化县、金门县,(待统一)。
  43. ^ 泉州市历史沿革 (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2019. 1949年8月至11月除金门县外各县相继解放,{...}自1949年9月起除续领原辖晋江、惠安、南安、安溪、永泰、德化、莆田、仙游、金门、同安10县外,1951年从晋江县析出城区和近郊建县级泉州市。{...}2003年末,全市总户数1715866户,总人口6626204人,其中非农业人口1696232人(均不包括金门县在内);
  44. ^ 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2022). 中国2020年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-9772-9.
  45. ^ 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  46. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2019). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2018 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House. Archived from the original on July 18, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  47. ^ a b Ang, Yuen Yuen (2016). How China Escaped the Poverty Trap. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-5017-0020-0. JSTOR 10.7591/j.ctt1zgwm1j.
  48. ^ Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces, http://info.hktdc.com/mktprof/china/mpfuj.htm Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ China NBS / Bulletin on Reforming Fujian's GDP Accounting and Data Release System: fj.gov.cn (23-Oct-17)[permanent dead link] (Chinese)
  50. ^ Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO (October 2017 Archived February 14, 2006, at Archive-It) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook Archived October 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  51. ^ ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "Ever cuddlier". The Economist. December 18, 2008. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
  53. ^ "China Pledges Loans to Taiwan Firms to Boost Ties (Update2)". Bloomberg. December 21, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  54. ^ Ruan, Jinshan (阮金山); Li, Xiuzhu (李秀珠); Lin, Kebing (林克冰); Luo, Donglian (罗冬莲); Zhou, Chen (周宸); Cai, Qinghai (蔡清海) (April 2005). 安海湾南岸滩涂养殖贝类死亡原因调查分析 [Analysis of the causes of death of farmed shellfish on the mudflats in the southern part of Anhai Bay]. 《福建水产》 [Fujian Aquaculture]. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014.
  55. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 122. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  56. ^ "Fujian Demographics - China Maps, map of china, maps of Beijing, Shanghai, Xian, Hong Kong, Tibet". Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
  57. ^ Semple, Kirk (21 October 2009). "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  58. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Dan, Jennifer Marie (2002). "Manichaeism and its Spread into China". Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects. Retrieved June 15, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  60. ^ "Muslim in China, Muslim Population & Distribution & Minority in China". topchinatravel.com. Archived from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  61. ^ a b French, Howard W. "Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done Archived April 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine." The New York Times. July 10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  62. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter. pp. 49, 52, 71. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  63. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
  64. ^ "Fujian - My Tours Company". Retrieved 2023-10-07.
  65. ^ "Kaiyuan Temple". Chinaculture.org. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  66. ^ Lary, Diana (2022). China's grandmothers : gender, family, and aging from late Qing to twenty-first century. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-009-06478-1. OCLC 1292532755.
  67. ^ Liu, Jifeng (2021-11-24). "Deifying Communist Soldiers: The Coastal Defence Culture and the Continuation of Apotheosis in Contemporary China". Asian Studies Review. 46 (4): 650–667. doi:10.1080/10357823.2021.1999904. ISSN 1035-7823. S2CID 244674139.
  68. ^ 陈子琰. "High-speed railway revives ancient tea road". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on December 6, 2021. Retrieved 2021-12-05.


Economic data

External links[edit]