Fujian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Fujian (disambiguation).
Fujian Province
福建省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)
 • Abbreviation simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: (pinyin: Mǐn, Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bân)
 • Hokkien POJ Hok-kiàn
 • Foochow Hók-gióng
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3
Capital Fuzhou
Largest city Quanzhou
Divisions 9 prefectures, 85[1] counties, 1107[1] townships
Government
 • Secretary You Quan
 • Governor Yu Weiguo
Area[2]
 • Total 121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)
Area rank 23rd
Population (2013)[3]
 • Total 37,700,011
 • Rank 17th
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)
 • Density rank 14th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition Han – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
 • Languages and dialects Mandarin,
Min (inc. Hokkien, Foochow)
ISO 3166 code CN-35
GDP (2015) CNY 2.597 trillion
US$ 412.22 billion[4] (11th)
 • per capita CNY 68,260
US$ 10,962 (7th)
HDI (2010) 0.714[5] (high) (11th)
Website www.fujian.gov.cn
Fujian
Fujian (Chinese characters).svg
"Fujian" in Chinese characters
Chinese 福建
Literal meaning "Fu(zhou) and Jian('ou)"
Abbreviation
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning [the Min River]

Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: Fújiàn; pronounced [fǔtɕi̯ɛ̂n]), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south.[6] The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian'ou) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.

Most of Fujian is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Kinmen and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China (ROC). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the PRC and the Fujian Province of the ROC.

Fujian Province, where most of the overseas Chinese in southeast Asia originated from, is still famously known as the Hokkien Province, based on the local pronunciation of the two Chinese characters "福建".

History[edit]

Prehistoric Fujian[edit]

Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made-ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, a definitive evidence of weaving.

The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.

Minyue[edit]

See also: Minyue

Fujian was also the place for the kingdom of Minyue. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (/; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), perhaps an ethnic name and associated with the Chinese word for barbarians[citation needed] (/; pinyin: mán; POJ: bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn Period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after their kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably earlier.

Imperial China[edit]

Han dynasty[edit]

Minyue was a de facto kingdom until the emperor of Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished the status. In the aftermath of the fall of the Qin dynasty, however, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight side-by-side with Liu Bang and his gamble paid off. Liu Bang was victorious and founded the Han dynasty; in 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus, Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.[7]

After the death of Wuzhu, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, mostly in the 2nd century BC, only to be stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by sending a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction; thus the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.

The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

First Han Chinese migration[edit]

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen (陈), Zheng (郑), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

Golden age under the Tang Dynasty[edit]

The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China and culturally and economically benefited Fujian greatly, Fujian's capital Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian.

As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.[8]

Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom[citation needed] and was the largest seaport in the world.[when?] Its population is also greater than Fuzhou.[9][10] Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was severely damaged.

Song dynasty[edit]

The Lý dynasty monarchs of Vietnam were of Chinese ethnicity.[11] Fujian province, Jinjiang village was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊, the ancestor of the Lý dynasty ruling family.[a][12][13][14] China, Fujian was the home of Lý Công Uẩn. The ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.[15]

The founder of the Trần Dynasty in Vietnam, Emperor Trần Thái Tông was the great grandon of a Chinese who came to Vietnam from Fujian, from the Chinese Chen clan and several members of the family like Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn continued to be able to speak Chinese[16][17] The name of his great grandfather was Trần Kinh.

People from Song dynasty China like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao fled to Tran dynasty ruled Vietnam after the Mongol invasion of the Song. The Tran dynasty originated from the Fujian region of China as did the Daoist cleric Xu Zongdao who recorded the Mongol invasion and referred to them as "Northern bandits".[18]

Fujian was the origin of the ethnic Chinese Tran who migrated to Vietnam along with a large amount of other Chinese during the Ly dynasty where they served as officials. Distinctly Chinese last names are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam records.[19] Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty records of officials.[20] Clothing, food, and language were all Chinese dominated in Van Don where the Tran had moved to after leaving their home province of Fujian. The Chinese language could still be spoken by the Tran in Vietnam.[16] The ocean side area of Vietnam was colonized by Chinese migrants from Fujian which included the Tran among them located to the capital's southeastern area.[17][21] The Red River Delta was subjected to migration from Fujian including the Tran and Van Don port arose as a result of this interaction.[22] Guangdong and Fujian Chinese moved to the Halong located Van Don coastal port during Ly Anh Tong's rule in order to engage in commerce.[23] The usurpation of the Ly occurred after they married with the fishing Fujianese Tran family.[24]

In 1172 Fujian was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates.[25]

Ming dynasty[edit]

In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550.[citation needed] Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[citation needed]

An account of Ming dynasty Fujian was written by No In 鲁认.[26][27]

The Pisheya appear in Quanzhou Ming era records.[28]

Qing dynasty[edit]

Late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan. Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of Hoklo people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was developed into an independent province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province) starting in 1885.[29] Just ten more years later, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after losing the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895.

Republican China[edit]

Owing to the mountainous landscape, Fujian was the most secluded province of the PRC in eastern China due to the lack of rail and underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first railway to the province, the Yingtan-Xiamen Railway, was completed in 1957. Despite its secluded location, Fujian has had a strong academic tradition since the Southern Song dynasty. At the time, north China was occupied by the Jurchen Jin dynasty during the Jin-Song wars, which caused a shift of the cultural center of China to the south, benefiting Fuzhou and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, there are more members from Fuzhou than from any other city.[citation needed] In addition, it should also be pointed out that the slow development of Fujian in its early days has proven a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion accompanied by frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.[citation needed]

Since the late 1970s, the economy of Fujian along the coast has greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to Taiwan. In 2003, Xiamen ranked number eight GDP per capita among 659 Chinese cities, ahead of Shanghai and Beijing, while Fuzhou ranked no. 21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals).[citation needed] The development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the over-populated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings, and the government faces challenges at all levels to sustain development while, at the same time, preserving the unique and vital natural and cultural heritage of Fujian.

Geography[edit]

Min River (闽江)in Nanping (南平)

The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009.[30] The highest point of Fujian is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2157 m.

Fujian province faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.

The Min River (闽江) and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin River and the Jiulong River. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.

Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. Small parts of the province, namely the islands of Quemoy and Matsu, are under the administration of the Republic of China.

Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).

Transportation[edit]

The province has improved its infrastructure considerably by adding 166 kilometres (103 mi) of new roads and 155 kilometres (96 mi) of railways.[when?]

Road[edit]

As of 2012, there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).[31]

Railways[edit]

Fuzhou train station

Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).

Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).[32]

Air[edit]

The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport and Longyan Guanzhishan Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers in 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong.[32]

Major cities:

Administrative divisions[edit]

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):

Administrative divisions of Fujian
Fujian prfc map.png
Division code[33] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[34] Population 2010[35] Seat Divisions[36]
Districts Counties CL cities
  350000 Fujian 福建省 Fújiàn Shěng 121400.00 36,894,216 Fuzhou 28 44 13
1 350100 Fuzhou 福州市 Fúzhōu Shì 12155.46 7,115,370 Gulou District 5 6 2
2 350200 Xiamen 厦门市 Xiàmén Shì 1699.39 3,531,347 Siming District 6
6 350300 Putian 莆田市 Pútián Shì 4119.02 2,778,508 Chengxiang District 4 1
8 350400 Sanming 三明市 Sānmíng Shì 22928.79 2,503,388 Meilie District 2 9 1
7 350500 Quanzhou 泉州市 Quánzhōu Shì 11245.00 8,128,530 Fengze District 4 5* 3
9 350600 Zhangzhou 漳州市 Zhāngzhōu Shì 12873.33 4,809,983 Longwen District 2 8 1
4 350700 Nanping 南平市 Nánpíng Shì 26280.54 2,645,549 Jianyang District 2 5 3
3 350800 Longyan 龙岩市 Lóngyán Shì 19028.26 2,559,545 Xinluo District 2 4 1
5 350900 Ningde 宁德市 Níngdé Shì 13452.38 2,821,996 Jiaocheng District 1 6 2

* - including Jinmen County claimed by the PRC controlled by the ROC (included in the total Counties' count)

All of the prefecture-level cities except Longyan, Sanming, and Nanping are found along the coast.

The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts). Note: these are the official PRC numbers. Thus, Quemoy (Jinmen) is included as one of the 45 counties and Matsu (Mazu) as one of the 334 townships.

Quemoy (Jinmen) County is nominally controlled by Quanzhou Prefecture-Level city, but it is administered in its entirety by the Republic of China. The PRC-administered Lianjiang County, under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou Prefecture-level City, nominally includes the Matsu Islands (Mazu), but Matsu (Mazu), in reality, is controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Matsu as Lienchiang County (same name romanized differently). The Wuchiu (Wuqiu) islands are nominally administered in the PRC by Xiuyu District of Putian Prefecture, but, in reality, is controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Wuchiu (Wuqiu) as part of Quemoy (Jinmen) County.

Politics[edit]

List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee

List of Governors

Economy[edit]

Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in Fujian province.

Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.[37]

In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley.[38] Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.[39]

See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.

Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.[40][41]

Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.

In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year.[42] It's GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)).[39]

By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.[43]

Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off Shuitou[44]
  • Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Xiamen Export Processing Zone
  • Xiamen Free Trade Zone
  • Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese Version)
  • Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

Demographics[edit]

She ethnic townships in Fujian

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."[45]

Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Hokciu people, Teochew people and Putian people.

Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.[46]

Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially Southeast Asia, trace their ancestry to Fujian. Descendants of Fujian emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of the Philippines, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Fujian, especially Fuzhou, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.[47]

Religion[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Fujian[48][b]

  Christianity (3.5%)
  Other religions or not religious people[c] (65.19%)

The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian.[48] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

Temple of Tianhou (the Queen of Heaven) in Quanzhou.
A roadside Buddhist temple in Siming, Xiamen.
A small folk temple in Shuitou.
A folk temple in Zhangzhou.
One of the oldest mosques in China is located in Quanzhou.
Rare Rose Hill Catholic parish in Fuzhou.

Culture[edit]

Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".[49] Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. Early classifications, such as those of Li Fang-Kuei in 1937 and Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min into[50][51]

(The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian.) Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities.[49]

Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.

Kompyang (房村光饼) sold on the streets of Fujian cities.

Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone, and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).

Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea, and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Min nan language. (Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.)

Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.

Tourism[edit]

Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County

Places of interest include:

Notable individuals[edit]

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable persons since the time of the Song dynasty, such as:

Miscellaneous topics[edit]

Corporations with headquarters in Fujian include:

Professional sports teams in Fujian include:

Education[edit]

High schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

National[edit]

Provincial[edit]

Private[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 夢溪筆談·卷二十五·雜誌二》:「桓死,安南大亂,久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。」
  2. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[48] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  3. ^ This may include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b These are the official PRC numbers from 2009 Fujian Statistic Bureau. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
  2. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "福建省2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". 中国统计信息网.  Retrieved April 6, 2016
  5. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  6. ^ "深空(R) Web 应用防火墙 拦截提示 | SkyDeep Web Application Firewall Blocking Tips". 1.cn. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  7. ^ Fuijan. Britannica.com.
  8. ^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian
  9. ^ 伊本・白图泰(著)、马金鹏(译),《伊本・白图泰游记》,宁夏人民出版社,2005年
  10. ^ "中国网事:千年古港福建"泉州港"被整合改名引网民争议". 新华网. Retrieved 2014-08-17. 
  11. ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2013/09/07/the-stranger-kings-of-the-ly-and-tran-dynasties/
  12. ^ (simplified Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
  13. ^ (simplified Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
  14. ^ Lynn Pan. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101. 
  15. ^ Cuong Tu Nguyen (1997). Thiền Uyển Tập Anh. University of Hawaii Press. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-8248-1948-4. 
  16. ^ a b K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Taylor2013" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  17. ^ a b Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hall2008" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  18. ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2015/12/04/giac-bac-den-xam-luoc-translations-and-exclamation-points/
  19. ^ Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5. 
  20. ^ Geoffrey C. Gunn (1 August 2011). History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-988-8083-34-3. 
  21. ^ Hall (1 January 1955). Secondary Cities & Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, c. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3043-8. 
  22. ^ Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0. 
  23. ^ Philippe Truong (2007). The Elephant and the Lotus: Vietnamese Ceramics in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. MFA Pub. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87846-717-4. 
  24. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 190. 
  25. ^ http://www.filipiknow.net/visayan-pirates-in-china/ https://ia601900.us.archive.org/2/items/cu31924023289345/cu31924023289345.pdf https://archive.org/stream/cu31924023289345#page/n181/mode/2up pp. 165-166. http://nightskylie.blogspot.com/2015/07/philippine-quarterly-of-culture-and.html
  26. ^ http://js.ifeng.com/humanity/zt/detail_2015_08/22/4264144_0.shtml
  27. ^ https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/29740/1/Han_Hee_Yeon_C_201105_PhD_thesis.pdf pp. 269-271.
  28. ^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512
  29. ^ Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. 
  30. ^ "Forestry in Fujian Province" (in Chinese). English.forestry.gov.cn. January 21, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  31. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2009. 
  32. ^ a b "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2009. 
  33. ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部. 
  34. ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  35. ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2. 
  36. ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (2014.08). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  37. ^ Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces, http://info.hktdc.com/mktprof/china/mpfuj.htm
  38. ^ ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian
  39. ^ a b "Fujian GDP expected to hit 1 trillion yuan". China Daily. December 19, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Ever cuddlier". The Economist. December 18, 2008. 
  41. ^ "China Pledges Loans to Taiwan Firms to Boost Ties (Update2)". Bloomberg. December 21, 2008. 
  42. ^ 用户名:密码: 验证码: 匿名? CheckLogin(); 发表评论 (March 2, 2010). "福建省2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网". Tjcn.org. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  43. ^ http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/fujian-province/ The China Perspective | Fujian Economic News and Data
  44. ^ Ruǎn Jīnshān; Li Xiùzhū; Lín Kèbīng; Luō Dōnglián; Zhōu Chén; Cài Qīnghǎi (阮金山;李秀珠;林克冰;罗冬莲;周宸;蔡清海), 安海湾南岸滩涂养殖贝类死亡原因调查分析 (Analysis of the causes of death of farmed shellfish on the mudflats in the southern part of Anhai Bay), 《福建水产》 (Fujian Aquaculture), 2005-04
  45. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 122. 
  46. ^ http://www.chinamaps.info/Fujian/Fujian-Demographics.htm
  47. ^ Semple, Kirk (21 October 2009). "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin". New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  48. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15)
  49. ^ a b French, Howard W. "Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done." The New York Times. July 10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  50. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter. pp. 49, 52, 71. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2. 
  51. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3. 
Economic data

External links[edit]