Fujiwara no Nakamaro
Fujiwara no Nakamaro (藤原 仲麻呂?, 706 - October 21, 764), also known as Emi no Oshikatsu (恵美 押勝?), was a Japanese aristocrat (kuge), courtier, and statesman. He was Chancellor (Daijō-daijin) of the Imperial government during the Nara period.
Nakamaro was named to progressively important court positions during the reign of Empress Kōken.
- Minister of the Right (udaijin)
- Supreme Military Official (shibinaishō)
- Vice Minister (jundaijin)
Plans for a military campaign in Korea were started, but it was abandoned.
His plans were opposed by some of his cousins in the Fujiwara clan.
In 764, Nakamaro was a trusted supporter of the emperor Junnin; and he was at odds with former-Empress Kōken and her close associate, the monk Dōkyō. In the struggle between the factions headed by Junnin and Kōken, Nakamaro was captured and killed. His wife and children were also killed. Soon after, Junnin was deposed; and Kōken reclaimed the monarch's role for another five years.
- Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 274
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Fujiwara no Nakamaro" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 207.
- Sansom, George Bailey. (1958). A History of Japan to 1334, p. 91; excerpt, "He paid particular attention to military matters, and while he was Chancellor, he planned a line of forts at points in the northern provinces of Mutsu and Dewa, which were to be bases of operations against the rebellious aborigines. His project did not succeed ..."
- Hall, J. W. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. p.249.
- Brown, p. 274 n44; excerpt, "An office was established during Empress Kōken's reign but abolished after Nakamaro's death in 764."
- Nussbaum, "Tachibana no Naramaro" at p. 921; Bender, Ross. (2009). "The Suppression of the Tachibana Naramaro Conspiracy," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37/2:223–245; compare mirrored full-text; retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Soyeda, Juichi. (1896). A History of Banking in Japan, p. 489.
- Brown, p. 275.
- Sansom, p. 91; excerpt, "Oshikatsu was no more fortunate in another undertaking, which was to send a large expedition against Korea. He set up commissions to equip some five hundred ships, which were to transport an army of 40,000 men across the straits. It seems that only moderate progress had been made when the project was abandoned ...."
- Sansom, p. 90; excerpt, "... Nakamaro, better known by his later title as the Minister Oshikatsu, was in high favour with the Emperor Junnin but not with the ex-Empress. In a civil disturbance that took place in 764-765, Oshikatsu was captured and killed, while the young Emperor was deposed and exiled in 765 and presumably strangled. The ex-Empress reascended the throne as the Empress Shōtoku, and Dōkyō was all powerful until she died withous issue in 770."
- Plutschow, Herbert. (1993). Historical Nara, pp. 176-177.
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Plutschow Herbert E. (1983). Historical Nara: with illustrations and guide maps. Tokyo: Japan Times. ISBN 9784789002264
- Sansom, George Bailey. (1958). A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0523-2
- Tōshi Kaden, a bibliographic clan record