Tokuzō Fukuda

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Tokuzō Fukuda (福田 徳三 Fukuda Tokuzō; born February 12, 1874; died May 8, 1930) was a pioneer of modern Japanese economics.

Fukuda introduced economic theory and economic history for the Social Policy School and the Younger Historical school of economics.

He graduated from the Tokyo Higher School of Commerce (today's Hitotsubashi University). After he was appointed lecturer of his alma mater, he studied in Germany, under Karl Bücher among others in the field, and he earned his doctorate from Munich University. His thesis dealt with the social and economic development in Japan (original title: Die gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Japan) and was supervised by Lujo Brentano.

After returning to Japan, he became professor of his alma mater and later at Keiō University.

During the years known as the period of "Taishō Democracy", he joined with others to establish Reimeikai, which was a society "to propagate ideas of democracy among the people."[1] This group was formed in order to sponsor public lectures.[2]

After World War I, he stood for democracy (liberalism), from a critical standpoint towards Marxism, and emphasized the solution of social and labour problems by the government. He is also considered a pioneer of the welfare state idea. As an advisor to the Ministry of Home Affairs, he also worked out policy drafts.


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Reimeikai" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 785, p. 785, at Google Books.
  2. ^ Marshall, Byron K. (1992). Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, 1868-1939, p. 96., p. 96, at Google Books


  • Marshall, Byron K. (1992). Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, 1868-1939. Berkeley: University of California Press.ISBN 9780520078215; OCLC 25130703
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128