Fukuroi is on the coastal plain in southwestern Shizuoka Prefecture. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the south. The area has a mild maritime climate with hot, humid summers, and short, cool winters.
During the Sengoku period, Fukuroi was part of the domain within Tōtōmi Province governed by Yamauchi Kazutoyo from Kakegawa Castle. During the Edo period, it was tenryō territory under direct control of the Tokugawa shogunate, and prospered as Fukuroi-juku on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto. After the Meiji Restoration, in the cadastral reorganization for 1889, Fukuroi-juku became the town of Yamana, within Yamana District, Shizuoka Prefecture. Yamana District was merged into Iwata District in 1896, and the town's name was changed back to Fukuroi in 1909. Fukuroi merged with the neighboring village of Kasai in 1928. It continued to grow in the 1950s, annexing neighboring villages of Kudonishi (from Shuchi District) in 1948, Kudo in 1952, Imai in 1954, Mikawa in 1955, Tahara in 1956, as well as the village of Kasahara from Ogasa District, also in 1956. On November 3, 1958 Fukuroi was elevatedcity status. It further expanded through annexation of the town of Yamanashi from Shuchi District in 1963.
Fukuroi has a mixed economy of agriculture and light industry. The principal crops are green tea and melons. Industry includes food processing, cosmetics, pharmaceutical plants, as well as electronics and automotive components.