Staged combustion cycle
The staged combustion cycle is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine. In the staged combustion cycle, propellant flows through multiple combustion chambers, and is thus combusted in stages. Also called topping cycle and preburner cycle, its main advantage relative to other rocket engine power cycles is high fuel efficiency, measured through specific impulse, while its main disadvantage is engineering complexity.
Typically, propellant flows through two kinds of combustion chambers; the first called preburner and the second called main combustion chamber. In the preburner, a small portion of propellant is combusted, and the over-pressure produced is used to drive the turbopumps that feed the engine with propellant. In the main combustion chamber, the propellants are combusted completely so to produce thrust.
The fuel efficiency of the staged combustion cycle is in part a result of all propellant ultimately flowing to the main combustion chamber; contributing to thrust. The staged combustion cycle is sometimes referred to as closed cycle, as opposed to the gas generator, or open, cycle where a portion of propellant never reaches the main combustion chamber. The engineering complexity is partly a result of the preburner exhaust of hot and highly pressurized gas which, particularly when oxidizer-rich, produces extremely harsh conditions for turbines and plumbing.
Staged combustion (Замкнутая схема) was first proposed by Alexey Isaev in 1949. The first staged combustion engine was the S1.5400 (11D33) used in the Soviet planetary rocket, designed by Melnikov, a former assistant to Isaev. About the same time (1959), Nikolai Kuznetsov began work on the closed cycle engine NK-9 for Korolev's orbital ICBM, GR-1. Kuznetsov later evolved that design into the NK-15 and NK-33 engines for the unsuccessful Lunar N1 rocket. The non-cryogenic N2O4/UDMH engine RD-253 using staged combustion was developed by Valentin Glushko circa 1963 for the Proton rocket.
After the abandonment of the N-1, Kuznetsov was ordered to destroy the NK-33 technology, but instead he warehoused dozens of the engines. In the 1990s, Aerojet was contacted and eventually visited Kuznetsov's plant. Upon meeting initial skepticism about the high specific impulse and other specifications, Kuznetsov shipped an engine to the US for testing. Oxidizer-rich staged combustion had been considered by American engineers, but deemed impossible. The Russian RD-180 engine, purchased by Lockheed Martin (subsequently by United Launch Alliance) for the Atlas III and V rockets, also employs this technique.
Hydrogen peroxide/kerosene fueled engines such as the British Gamma of the 1950s may use a closed-cycle process by catalytically decomposing the peroxide to drive turbines before combustion with the kerosene in the combustion chamber proper. This gives the efficiency advantages of staged combustion, while avoiding major engineering problems.
The Space Shuttle Main Engine is another example of a staged combustion engine, and the first to use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Its counterpart in the Soviet shuttle was the RD-0120, similar in specific impulse, thrust, and chamber pressure specification to the SSME, but with some differences that reduced complexity and cost at the expense of increased engine weight.
Several variants of the staged combustion cycle exists. Preburners that burn a small portion of oxidizer with a full flow of fuel are called fuel-rich, while preburners that burn a small portion of fuel with a full flow of oxidizer are called oxidizer-rich. The RD-180 has an oxidizer-rich preburner, while the RS-25 has fuel-rich preburners. The Raptor has both oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich preburners, a design called full-flow staged combustion.
Staged combustion designs can be either single-shaft or twin-shaft. In the single-shaft design, one set of preburner and turbine drives both propellant turbopumps. Examples include the Energomash RD-180 and the Blue Origin BE-4. In the twin-shaft design, the two propellant turbopumps are driven by separate turbines, which are in turn driven by the outflow of either one or separate preburners. Examples of twin-shaft designs include the Rocketdyne RS-25, the JAXA LE-7, and the SpaceX Raptor. Relative to a single-shaft design, the twin-shaft design requires an additional set of preburner and turbine, but allows for individual control of the two turbopumps.
In addition to the propellant turbopumps, staged combustion engines often require smaller boost pumps so to prevent both preburner backflow and turbopump cavitation. For example, the RD-180 and RS-25 use boost pumps driven by tap-off and expander cycles, as well as pressurized tanks, to incrementally increase propellant pressure prior to entering the preburner.
Full-flow staged combustion cycle
Full-flow staged combustion (FFSC) is a twin-shaft staged combustion cycle that uses both oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich preburners. The cycle allows full flow of both propellants through the turbines; hence the name. The fuel turbopump is driven by the fuel-rich preburner, and the oxidizer turbopump is driven by the oxidizer-rich preburner.
Benefits of the full-flow staged combustion cycle includes turbines that run cooler and at lower pressure, due to increased mass flow, leading to a longer engine life and higher reliability. As an example, up to 25 flights were anticipated for an engine design studied by the DLR (German Aerospace Center) in the frame of the SpaceLiner project. Further, the full-flow cycle eliminates the need for an interpropellant turbine seal normally required to separate oxidizer-rich gas from the fuel turbopump or fuel-rich gas from the oxidizer turbopump, thus improving reliability.
Since the use of both fuel and oxidizer preburners results in full gasification of each propellant before entering the combustion chamber, FFSC engines belong to a border class of rocket engines called gas-gas engines. Full gasification of components leads to faster chemical reactions in the combustion chamber, which improves performance.
Potential disadvantages of the full-flow staged combustion cycle includes increased engineering complexity of two preburners, relative to a single-shaft staged combustion cycle, as well as an increased parts count.
Only three full-flow staged combustion rocket engines have ever progressed sufficiently to be tested on test stands: the Soviet Energomash RD-270 project in the 1960s, the US government-funded Aerojet Rocketdyne Integrated powerhead demonstration project in the mid-2000s, and SpaceX's Raptor engine on 26 September 2016.
Oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines include the following:
- S1.5400—First staged combustion rocket engine used on the Blok L upper stage.
- NK-33—Soviet engine developed for the never-flown upgraded version of the N-1 launch vehicle. Later sold to Aerojet Rocketdyne and refurbished/remarketed as the AJ-26 (used on Antares block 1 launch vehicles in 2013–2014). In use on the Soyuz-2-1v.
- RD-170, RD-171, RD-180 and RD-191—a series of Soviet and Russian engines used on the Energia, Zenit, Atlas V, Angara and previously on the Atlas III launch vehicles. RD-171 (and its RD-171M successor), -180 and -191 are derivatives of RD-170.
- YF-100—Chinese engine developed in the 2000s; used on the Long March 5, Long March 6, and Long March 7.
- AR-1 An Aerojet Rocketdyne project partially funded by the United States Air Force as a potential replacement for the RD-180 Russian engine.
- BE-4—Blue Origin LCH4/LOX engine planned to be used on the ULA Vulcan launch vehicle, which will replace the Atlas V and Delta IV, first flight test in 2019 and also on Blue Origin's New Glenn launch vehicle, with first flight test no earlier than 2020.
- RD-253—Soviet engine developed in the 1960s and used on the Proton launch vehicle's first stage. Later variants include the RD-275 and RD-275M.
- SCE-200—Indian RP-1/LOX main stage engine in development.
- Hadley—Ursa Major Technologies LOX/Kerosene booster engine under development near Denver, Colorado.
Fuel-rich staged combustion engines include the following:
- RS-25 (SSME)—US developed 1970–1980s, flown on the Space Shuttle through 2011 (with periodic upgrades), and planned for further use on the Space Launch System after 2018.
- RD-0120—LH2/LOX engine used on the Energia rocket.
- LE-7—LH2/LOX engine used on the H-II rocket family.
- KVD-1 (RD-56)—Soviet LH2/LOX upper stage engine developed for the never-flown upgraded version of the N-1 launch vehicle. Used on the GSLV Mk1.
- CE-7.5—Indian LH2/LOX upper stage engine, used on the GSLV Mk2
Full-flow staged combustion engines include the following:
- RD-270—Soviet engine under development 1962–1970 for the UR-700 project; never flown.
- Integrated powerhead demonstrator—Demonstration project for the front part of a full flow engine, with no combustion chamber or other backend subsystems. US project to develop a part of a new rocket engine technology in the early 2000s; no full engine ever built; never flown.
- Raptor—SpaceX LCH4/LOX engine in development since the 2010s.
Staged combustion engines have also been used in:
Staged combustion engines are planned for:
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