Fullerene whiskers

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Schematic (top) and electron micrograph (bottom) of C60 whiskers

Fullerene whiskers are thin rods composed of fullerene molecules, such as C60, C70, or their mixtures. Hollow fullerene whiskers are called fullerene tubes. Such structures typically have a diameter of a few micrometers. When the diameter becomes smaller than 1 micron, the corresponding structures are called fullerene nanowhiskers or fullerene nanotubes.[1]

Fullerene whiskers and tubes are held together by weak van der Waals forces, and hence are very soft.[1] They can be grown by precipitation at an interface between two liquids. They are semiconductors and have potential uses in field-effect transistors, solar cells, chemical sensors, and photocatalysts. When doped with alkali metals, such as potassium, they become superconductors.[2]

As-grown fullerene nanotubes have hexagonal shapes and face-centered cubic crystal structures. Owing to their relatively large inner diameters (ca. 100 nm) and low reactivity they can accommodate a wide range of nanoparticles. C60 nanotubes decompose upon heating to 416 °C (781 °F) in air.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Miyazawa, K. (2010). "Synthesis and Functions of Fullerene Nanotubes". Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials. Topics in Applied Physics. 117. pp. 201–214. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03622-4_15. ISBN 978-3-642-03620-0.
  2. ^ a b Miyazawa, K. (2015). "Synthesis of fullerene nanowhiskers using the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method and their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 16 (1): 013502. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/16/1/013502. PMC 5036494. PMID 27877738.