Fulton County, Georgia

Coordinates: 33°47′N 84°28′W / 33.79°N 84.47°W / 33.79; -84.47
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Fulton County
Atlanta's Fulton County Courthouse in 2011
Atlanta's Fulton County Courthouse in 2011
Flag of Fulton County
Official logo of Fulton County
Map of Georgia highlighting Fulton County
Location within the U.S. state of Georgia
Map of the United States highlighting Georgia
Georgia's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 33°47′N 84°28′W / 33.79°N 84.47°W / 33.79; -84.47
Country United States
State Georgia
FoundedDecember 20, 1853; 171 years ago (1853)
Named forRobert Fulton
Largest cityAtlanta
 • Total534 sq mi (1,380 km2)
 • Land527 sq mi (1,360 km2)
 • Water7.7 sq mi (20 km2)  1.4%
 • Total1,066,710 Increase
 • Density2,000/sq mi (800/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts5th, 6th, 11th, 13th

33°47′N 84°28′W / 33.79°N 84.47°W / 33.79; -84.47

Fulton County is a county in the north-central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2020 United States census, the population was 1,066,710,[1] making it the state's most populous county and its only one with over one million inhabitants.[2] Its county seat and most populous city is Atlanta,[3] the state capital. About 90% of the City of Atlanta is within Fulton County; the remaining portion is in DeKalb County. Fulton County is part of the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Midtown Atlanta and the Downtown Connector

Fulton County was created in 1853 from the western half of DeKalb County. It was named in honor of Robert Fulton, the man who created the first commercially successful steamboat in 1807.[4]

After the American Civil War, there was considerable violence against freedmen in the county. During the post-Reconstruction period, violence and the number of lynchings of blacks increased in the late 19th century, as whites exercised terrorism to re-establish and maintain white supremacy. Whites lynched 35 African Americans here from 1877 to 1950; according to the Georgia Lynching Project, 24 were killed in 1906. This was the highest total in the state.[5] With a total of 589, Georgia was second to Mississippi in its total number of lynchings in this period.[6]

In addition to individual lynchings, during the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906, whites killed at least 25 African Americans; the number may have been considerably higher. Two white persons died during the riot; one a woman who died of a heart attack. The violence affected black residential and business development in the city afterward. The Georgia legislature effectively completed disenfranchisement of African Americans in 1908, with constitutional amendments that raised barriers to voter registration and voting, excluding them from the political system[citation needed].

At the beginning of 1932, as an austerity measure to save money during the Great Depression, Fulton County annexed Milton County to the north and Campbell County to the southwest, to centralize administration. That resulted in the current long shape of the county along 80 miles (130 km) of the Chattahoochee River. On May 9 of that year, neighboring Cobb County ceded the city of Roswell and lands lying east of Willeo Creek to Fulton County so that it would be more contiguous with the lands ceded from Milton County.

In the second half of the 20th century, Atlanta and Fulton county became the location of numerous national and international headquarters for leading companies, attracting highly skilled employees from around the country. This led to the city and county becoming more cosmopolitan and diverse.

In 1992, Fulton County elected the first African-American woman, Jacquelyn Harrison Barrett, to the position of Sheriff in the history of the United States.


Garrett Lake, Mountain Park

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 534 square miles (1,380 km2), of which 527 square miles (1,360 km2) is land and 7.7 square miles (20 km2) (1.4%) is water.[7] The county is located in the Piedmont region of the state in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the north. The shape of the county resembles a sword with its handle at the northeastern part, and the tip at the southwestern portion.

Going from north to south, the northernmost portion of Fulton County, encompassing Milton and northern Alpharetta, is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin (Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin). The rest of north and central Fulton, to downtown Atlanta, is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin (Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin). The bulk of south Fulton County, from Atlanta to Palmetto, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Lake Harding sub-basin of the larger ACF River Basin, with just the eastern edges of south Fulton, from Palmetto northeast through Union Hill to Hapeville, in the Upper Flint River sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin.[8]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]


Historical population
2023 (est.)1,079,105[9]1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
1790-1880[11] 1890-1910[12]
1920-1930[13] 1930-1940[14]
1940-1950[15] 1960-1980[16]
1980-2000[17] 2010[18] 2020[19]

2020 census[edit]

Fulton County, Georgia – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 2000[20] Pop 2010[18] Pop 2020[19] % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 369,997 376,014 404,793 45.34% 40.85% 37.95%
Black or African American alone (NH) 361,018 400,457 448,803 44.24% 43.50% 42.07%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,148 1,586 1,558 0.14% 0.17% 0.15%
Asian alone (NH) 24,635 51,304 80,632 3.02% 5.57% 7.56%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 261 287 381 0.03% 0.03% 0.04%
Other race alone (NH) 1,599 2,582 6,444 0.20% 0.28% 0.60%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH) 9,292 15,785 37,797 1.14% 1.71% 3.54%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 48,056 72,566 86,302 5.89% 7.88% 8.09%
Total 816,006 920,581 1,066,710 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 1,066,710 people, 439,578 households, and 238,444 families residing in the county.

2010 Census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 920,581 people, 376,377 households, and 209,215 families residing in the county.[21] The population density was 1,748.0 inhabitants per square mile (674.9/km2). There were 437,105 housing units at an average density of 830.0 per square mile (320.5/km2).[22] The racial makeup of the county was 46.4% white, 44.3% black or African American, 6.9% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 3.4% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.5% of the population.[21] In terms of ancestry, 7.7% were English, 7.2% were German, 6.3% were Irish, and 5.4% were "American".[23]

Of the 376,377 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.4% were non-families, and 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age was 34.2 years.[21]

The median income for a household in the county was $56,709 and the median income for a family was $75,579. Males had a median income of $56,439 versus $42,697 for females. The per capita income for the county was $37,211. About 12.0% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.[24]


Centennial Tower

Companies headquartered in Fulton County include AFC Enterprises (Popeyes Chicken/Cinnabon), AT&T Mobility, Chick-fil-A, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Church's Texas Chicken, The Coca-Cola Company, Cox Enterprises, Delta Air Lines, Earthlink, Equifax, First Data, Georgia-Pacific, Global Payments, Inc., InterContinental Hotels Group, IBM Internet Security Systems, Mirant Corp., Newell Rubbermaid, Northside Hospital, Piedmont Healthcare, Porsche Cars North America, Saint Joseph's Hospital, Southern Company, United Parcel Service, are based in various cities throughout Fulton County.[25]


Fulton County is governed by a seven-member board of commissioners, whose members are elected from single-member districts. They serve staggered four-year terms. The county has a county manager system of government, in which day-to-day operation of the county is handled by a manager appointed by the board. The chairman of the Board of Commissioners is elected at-large for the county-wide position. The vice chairman is elected by peers on a yearly basis.

Board of Commissioners
District Commissioner Party
District 7 (at-large) Robb Pitts (chairman) Democratic
District 1 Bridget Thorne Republican
District 2 Bob Ellis Republican
District 3 Dana Barrett Democratic
District 4 Natalie Hall Democratic
District 5 Marvin S. Arrington, Jr. Democratic
District 6 Khadijah Abdur-Rahman Democratic
Board of Commissioners Appointees
Position held Name
County Manager Dick Anderson
Clerk to the Commission Tonya Grier (interim)
County Attorney Soo Jo[26]
Chief Financial Officer Sharon Whitmore
Chief Operating Officer Anna Roach

United States Congress[edit]

Senators Name Party Assumed office Level
  Senate Class 2 Jon Ossoff Democratic 2021 Senior Senator
  Senate Class 3 Raphael Warnock Democratic 2021 Junior Senator
Representatives Name Party Assumed office
  District 4 Hank Johnson Democratic 2007
  District 5 Nikema Williams Democratic 2021
  District 6 Rich McCormick Republican 2023
  District 7 Lucy McBath Democratic 2019
  District 13 David Scott Democratic 2003

Georgia General Assembly[edit]

Georgia State Senate[edit]

District Name Party Assumed office
  6 Jason Esteves Democratic 2023
  14 Josh McLaurin Democratic 2023
  21 Brandon Beach Republican 2013
  28 Matt Brass Republican 2017
  35 Donzella James Democratic 2009
  36 Nan Orrock Democratic 2007
  38 Horacena Tate Democratic 1999
  39 Sonya Halpern Democratic 2021
  48 Shawn Still Republican 2023
  56 John Albers Republican 2011

Georgia House of Representatives[edit]

District Name Party Assumed office
  25 Todd Jones Republican 2017
  47 Jan Jones Republican 2003
  48 Scott Hilton Republican 2023
  49 Chuck Martin Republican 2003
  50 Michelle Au Democratic 2023
  51 Ester Panitch Democratic 2023
  52 Shea Roberts Democratic 2021
  53 Deborah Silcox Republican 2023
  54 Betsy Holland Democratic 2019
  55 Inga Willis Democratic 2023
  56 Mesha Mainor Republican 2021
  57 Stacey Evans Democratic 2021
  58 Park Cannon Democratic 2016
  59 Phil Olaleye Democratic 2023
  60 Sheila Jones Democratic 2023
  61 Roger Bruce Democratic 2013
  62 Tanya Miller Democratic 2023
  63 Kim Schofield Democratic 2023
  65 Mandisha Thomas Democratic 2021
  67 Lydia Glaize Democratic 2023
  68 Derrick Jackson Democratic 2023
  69 Deborah Bazemore Democratic 2023


Atlanta is the largest city in Fulton County, occupying the county's narrow center section and thus geographically dividing the county's northern and southern portions. Atlanta's last major annexation in 1952 brought over 118 square miles (310 km2) into the city, including the affluent suburb of Buckhead. The movement to create a city of Sandy Springs, launched in the early 1970s and reaching fruition in 2005, was largely an effort to prevent additional annexations by the city of Atlanta, and later to wrest local control from the county commission.

Fulton County is one of the most reliably Democratic counties in the entire nation. It has voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1876 except those of 1928 and in 1972, when George McGovern could not win a single county in Georgia. The demographic character of the Democratic Party has changed, as conservative whites, previously its chief members in the South, have mostly shifted to the Republican Party. In Fulton County, Democrats are composed primarily of liberal urbanites of various ethnicities and a growing contingent of suburban voters. Fulton is served by 4 Representatives in the U.S. House, with David Scott representing the southern suburbs, Lucy McBath representing Johns Creek, and John Lewis representing the core of Atlanta until his death on July 17, 2020.[27] Lewis was succeeded by Nikema Williams. Republican Rich McCormick represents most of North Fulton.

United States presidential election results for Fulton County, Georgia[28]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 137,247 26.20% 380,212 72.57% 6,472 1.24%
2016 117,783 26.85% 297,051 67.70% 23,917 5.45%
2012 137,124 34.42% 255,470 64.13% 5,752 1.44%
2008 130,136 32.08% 272,000 67.06% 3,489 0.86%
2004 134,372 39.90% 199,436 59.23% 2,933 0.87%
2000 104,870 39.84% 152,039 57.76% 6,303 2.39%
1996 89,809 36.93% 143,306 58.93% 10,053 4.13%
1992 85,451 33.20% 147,459 57.29% 24,499 9.52%
1988 91,785 42.75% 120,752 56.25% 2,152 1.00%
1984 95,149 43.11% 125,567 56.89% 0 0.00%
1980 64,909 33.68% 118,748 61.62% 9,066 4.70%
1976 61,552 32.16% 129,849 67.84% 0 0.00%
1972 96,256 56.43% 74,329 43.57% 0 0.00%
1968 64,153 35.83% 77,920 43.51% 36,995 20.66%
1964 73,205 43.90% 93,540 56.09% 11 0.01%
1960 53,940 49.15% 55,803 50.85% 0 0.00%
1956 37,326 42.21% 51,098 57.79% 0 0.00%
1952 35,197 40.15% 52,459 59.85% 0 0.00%
1948 14,976 29.33% 29,318 57.43% 6,760 13.24%
1944 7,687 17.14% 37,161 82.86% 0 0.00%
1940 6,033 16.10% 31,311 83.57% 122 0.33%
1936 3,552 11.52% 27,183 88.17% 94 0.30%
1932 2,063 9.19% 20,137 89.69% 253 1.13%
1928 9,368 51.36% 8,872 48.64% 0 0.00%
1924 3,229 25.55% 7,830 61.96% 1,579 12.49%
1920 3,336 33.46% 6,635 66.54% 0 0.00%
1916 1,040 9.21% 8,945 79.19% 1,311 11.61%
1912 1,688 17.75% 7,313 76.91% 507 5.33%
1908 2,906 35.73% 4,790 58.89% 438 5.38%
1904 1,766 22.50% 5,781 73.66% 301 3.84%
1900 1,676 24.55% 5,075 74.35% 75 1.10%
1896 3,005 38.04% 4,504 57.01% 391 4.95%
1892 1,364 21.82% 4,663 74.61% 223 3.57%
1888 2,164 42.04% 2,750 53.43% 233 4.53%
1884 925 32.30% 1,939 67.70% 0 0.00%
1880 2,229 42.26% 3,045 57.74% 0 0.00%


Geographically remote from each other, the northern and southern sections of the county have grown increasingly at odds over issues related to taxes and distribution of services. Residents of the affluent areas of North Fulton have increasingly complained that the Fulton County Board of Commissioners has ignored their needs, taking taxes collected in North Fulton, and spending them on programs and services in less wealthy South Fulton. In 2005, responding to pressure from North Fulton, the Georgia General Assembly directed Fulton County, alone among all the counties in the state, to limit the expenditure of funds to the geographic region of the county where they were collected. The Fulton County Commission contested this law, known as the "Shafer Amendment" after Sen. David Shafer (Republican from Duluth), in a lawsuit that went to the Georgia Supreme Court. On June 19, 2006, the Court upheld the law, ruling that the Shafer Amendment was constitutional.

The creation of the city of Sandy Springs stimulated the founding of two additional cities, resulting in no unincorporated areas remaining in north Fulton. In a domino effect, the residents of southwest Fulton voted in referendums to create additional cities. In 2007, one of these two referendums passed and the other was defeated, but later passed in 2016.


Road in Chattahoochee Hills

Since the 1970s, residents of Sandy Springs had waged a long-running battle to incorporate their community as a city, which would make it independent of county council control. They were repeatedly blocked in the state legislature by Atlanta Democrats, but when control of state government switched to suburban Republicans after the 2002 and 2004 elections, the movement to charter the city picked up steam.

Pill Hill, Sandy Springs

The General Assembly approved creation of the city in 2005, and for this case, it suspended an existing state law that prohibited new cities (the only type of municipality in the state) from being within three miles (4.8 km) of an existing one. The citizens of Sandy Springs voted 94% in favor of ratifying the city charter in a referendum held on June 21, 2005. The new city was officially incorporated later that year at midnight on December 1.

Johns Creek city hall

Creation of Sandy Springs was a catalyst for municipalization of the entire county, in which local groups would attempt to incorporate every area into a city. Such a result would essentially eliminate the county's home rule powers (granted statewide by a constitutional amendment to the Georgia State Constitution in the 1960s) to act as a municipality in unincorporated areas, and return it to being entirely the local extension of state government.

In 2006, the General Assembly approved creation of two new cities, Milton and Johns Creek, which completed municipalization of North Fulton. The charters of these two new cities were ratified overwhelmingly in a referendum held July 18, 2006.

Voters in the Chattahoochee Hills community of southwest Fulton (west of Cascade-Palmetto Highway) voted overwhelmingly to incorporate in June 2007. The city became incorporated on December 1, 2007.

The General Assembly approved a proposal to form a new city called South Fulton. Its proposed boundaries were to include those areas still unincorporated on July 1, 2007. As a direct result of possibly being permanently landlocked, many of the existing cities proposed annexations, while some communities drew-up incorporation plans.[29]

Voters in the area defined as the proposed city of South Fulton overwhelmingly rejected cityhood in September 2007. It was the only remaining unincorporated section of the county until the residents voted in November 2016 to incorporate as the city of South Fulton, Georgia. Prior to that vote North Fulton, which is overwhelmingly Republican, and members of the state legislature, had discussed forcing South Fulton residents to incorporate as a city in order to force Fulton County out of the municipal services business.


Some residents of suburban north Fulton have advocated since the early 2000's that they be allowed to secede and re-form Milton County, after the county that was absorbed into Fulton County in 1932 during the Great Depression. Fulton County, in comparison to the state's other counties, is physically large. Its population is greater than that of each of the six smallest U.S. states.

The demographic make-up of Fulton County has changed considerably in recent decades. The northern portion of the county, a suburban area, is among the most affluent areas in the nation and is majority white. It was formerly a Republican stronghold, but has seen a shift toward the Democratic Party since the early 2010s. In 2018, Lucy McBath won the 6th Congressional District, the majority of which is in North Fulton. The central and southern portion of the county, which includes the city of Atlanta and its core satellite cities to the south, is overwhelmingly Democratic and majority black. It contains some of the poorest sections in the metropolitan area, but also has wealthy sections, particularly in Midtown Atlanta, many east Atlanta neighborhoods, and in the suburban neighborhoods along Cascade Road beyond I-285. Cascade Heights and Sandtown, located in the southwest region of Fulton County, are predominantly affluent African American in population.[30]

The chief opponents to the proposed division of the county comes from the residents of south Fulton County, who say that the proposed separation is racially motivated. State Senator Vincent Fort, an Atlanta Democrat and a member of the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus, very strongly opposes the plan to split the county. "If it gets to the floor, there will be blood on the walls", Fort stated. "As much as you would like to think it's not racial, it's difficult to draw any other conclusion", he later added.[31]

In 2006 a political firestorm broke out in Atlanta when State Senator Sam Zamarripa (Democrat from Atlanta) suggested that the cities in North Fulton be allowed to secede and form Milton County in exchange for Atlanta and Fulton County consolidating their governments into a new "Atlanta County". South Fulton residents were strongly opposed to Fulton County's possible future division.


Fulton County has a 7% total sales tax, including 4% state, 1% SPLOST, 1% homestead exemption, and 1% MARTA. Sales taxes apply through the entire county and its cities, except for Atlanta's additional 1% Municipal Option Sales Tax to fund capital improvements to its combined wastewater sewer systems (laying new pipes to separate storm sewers from sanitary sewers), and to its drinking water system.[32] Fulton County has lowered its general fund millage rate by 26% over an eight-year period.

In early 2017, the state's first (and so far only) fractional-percent sales taxes took effect in Fulton. Atlanta added an additional 0.5% for MARTA and 0.4% TSPLOST for other transportation projects, while anti-transit Republican legislators from north Fulton blocked a countywide referendum on improving and extending MARTA, and instead allowed only a vote on a 0.75% TSPLOST for more roads in the areas outside Atlanta. This puts the total sales tax at 8.9% in Atlanta and 7.75% in the rest of the county, with 4% less on groceries.[33]


Fulton County's budget of $1.2 billion funds an array of resident services. With 34 branches, the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System is one of the largest library systems in Georgia. Human services programs include one of the strongest senior center networks in metro Atlanta, including four multi-purpose senior facilities. The county also provides funding to nonprofits with FRESH and Human Services grants.

Law enforcement[edit]

The responsibilities of the Fulton County Sheriff's Office include process serving, providing security at county buildings, courtrooms, jail and other public areas, and administration of the Fulton County Jail.[34] In 1992 Jacquelyn Harrison Barrett was elected Sheriff, making her the first African-American woman to serve as Sheriff in the United States. However, Barrett was suspended from office in 2004 by governor Sonny Perdue.[35]


South Fulton Parkway

Almost every major highway, and every major Interstate highway, in metro Atlanta passes through Fulton County. Outside Atlanta proper, Georgia 400 is the major highway through north Fulton, and Interstate 85 to the southwest.

Major highways[edit]

Interstate highways[edit]

U.S. highways[edit]

State routes[edit]

Secondary highways[edit]

Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta

Mass transit[edit]

East Point MARTA station

MARTA serves most of the county, and along with Clayton and Dekalb County, Fulton pays a 1% sales tax to fund it. MARTA train service in Fulton is currently limited to the cities of Atlanta, Sandy Springs, East Point, and College Park, as well as the airport. Bus service covers most of the remainder, except the rural areas in the far southwest and Johns Creek. North Fulton residents have been asking for service, to extend the North Line ten miles (16 km) up the Georgia 400 corridor, from Perimeter Center to the fellow edge city of Alpharetta. However, as the only major transit system in the country that its state government will not fund, there is no money to expand the system. Sales taxes now go entirely to operating, maintaining, and refurbishing the system. Xpress GA/ RTA provides commuter bus service from the outer suburbs of Fulton County, the city of Sandy Springs to Midtown and Downtown Atlanta.

Recreational trails[edit]


Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport straddles the border with Clayton County to the south and is the busiest airport in the world. The Fulton County Airport, often called Charlie Brown Field after politician Charles M. Brown, is located just west-southwest of Atlanta's city limit. It is run by the county as a municipal or general aviation airport, serving business jets and private aircraft.


All portions of Fulton County outside of the city limits of Atlanta are served by the Fulton County School System. All portions within Atlanta are served by Atlanta Public Schools.[40]



The Atlanta-Fulton County Library system began in 1902 as the Carnegie Library of Atlanta, one of the first public libraries in the United States. In 1935, the city of Atlanta and the Fulton County Board of Commissioners signed a contract under which library service was extended to all of Fulton County. Then in 1982, Georgia voters passed a constitutional Amendment authorizing the transfer of responsibility for the Library system from the city of Atlanta to the county. On July 1, 1983, the transfer finally became official, and the system was renamed the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System.

Under the leadership of Ella Gaines Yates, who was the first African American director of the Library System, a new Central library was opened to the public in May 1988. The building was designed by Marcel Breuer, a participant in the innovative Bauhaus movement, working side by side with his associate Hamilton Smith. The Central Library was dedicated on May 25, 1980, and Breuer would die a year later on July 1981 at the age of 81.

In 2002 after a hundred years of library service to the public, a major renovation of the Central Library was completed.


A map of all the cities within Fulton County, Georgia
A map of all the cities within Fulton County, Georgia

There are 15 cities within Fulton County. Four cities include land outside of the county (Atlanta, College Park, Palmetto, and Mountain Park) but still have their center of government and the majority of their land within Fulton County. After the formation of South Fulton in 2017, the only unincorporated part of the county is Fulton Industrial Boulevard, from roughly Fulton Brown Airport (Brown's Field) down to Fairburn Rd. (concurrent with GA-158 and GA-166)[41] This led to Fulton County becoming the first county in Georgia to suspend all city services.[42]


Former unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  2. ^ "2020 County Metro Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ About Fulton County
  5. ^ Lynching in America/ Supplement: Lynchings by County[permanent dead link], 3rd Edition, 2015, p. 4
  6. ^ AJC Staff, "Hundreds more were lynched in the South than previously known: report", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 14, 2017; accessed March 26, 2018
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  8. ^ "Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission Interactive Mapping Experience". Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  9. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  10. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decade". United States Census Bureau.
  11. ^ "1880 Census Population by Counties 1790-1800" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1880.
  12. ^ "1910 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1910.
  13. ^ "1930 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1930.
  14. ^ "1940 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1940.
  15. ^ "1950 Census of Population - Georgia -" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1950.
  16. ^ "1980 Census of Population - Number of Inhabitants - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1980.
  17. ^ "2000 Census of Population - Population and Housing Unit Counts - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2000.
  18. ^ a b "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Fulton County, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  19. ^ a b "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Fulton County, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  20. ^ "P004 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Fulton County, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  21. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  22. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  23. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  24. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  25. ^ "Fulton County's Strong Economy | FULTON COUNTY". www.fultoncountyny.gov. Retrieved October 31, 2023.
  26. ^ "County Attorney". Fulton Country. Retrieved January 19, 2024.
  27. ^ "John Lewis, Georgia Congressman and Civil Rights Icon, Dies at 80". NBC Boston. July 18, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  28. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
  29. ^ Dewan, Shaila (July 13, 2006). "In Georgia County, Divisions of North and South Play Out in Drives to Form New Cities". The New York Times.
  30. ^ Census tracts 78.05, 103.01, 103.03 and 103.04
  31. ^ "Plan to split county hints at racial divide". Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  32. ^ "City of Atlanta Municipal Option Sales Tax". Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  33. ^ "✔ Fulton County (GA) sales tax rate by zip-code or city".
  34. ^ "Sheriff's Office". fultoncountyga.gov. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  35. ^ Hart, Ariel (July 24, 2004). "County Sheriff Is Suspended in Georgia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  36. ^ "ARC allocations could provide for bus transit expansion, funding for Beltline extensions". December 19, 2017.
  37. ^ "Alpharetta OKs design to close Big Creek Greenway gap". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  38. ^ "Roswell backs trail along Ga. 400". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  39. ^ "Peachtree Creek Greenway work could begin early next year". August 21, 2017.
  40. ^ "2020 census - school district reference map: Fulton County, GA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 22, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2022. - Text list
  41. ^ "Printable Maps". www.fultoncountyga.gov. Fulton County.
  42. ^ Kass, Arielle. "Fulton County first in Georgia to relinquish city services". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Cox Enterprises. Retrieved April 28, 2020.

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