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Succinate + acceptor <=> fumarate + reduced acceptor
Fumarate reductases can be divided into two classes depending on the electron acceptor:
- Fumarate reductase (quinol) (EC 188.8.131.52)
- The membrane-bound enzyme covalently linked to flavin cofactors, which is composed of 3 or 4 subunits, transfers electrons from a quinol to fumarate. This class of enzyme is thus involved in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.
- Fumarate reductase (NADH) (EC 184.108.40.206)
- The enzyme is monomeric and soluble, and can reduce fumarate independently from the electron transport chain.
- Tielens, A.G., van Hellemond, J.J. (1998). "The electron transport chain in anearobically functioning eukaryotes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1365: 71–78.
- Camarasa; et al. (2007). "Role in anaerobiosis of the isoenzymes for Saccharomyces cerevisiae fumarate reductase encoded by OSM1 and FRDS1". Yeast. 24: 391–401. doi:10.1002/yea.1467.