Functional gastrointestinal disorder
|Classification and external resources|
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.
The Rome process has helped to define the functional gastrointestinal disorders. Successively, the Rome I, Rome II, and the Rome III meetings have proposed a consensual classification system and terminology, as recommended by the Rome Coordinating Committee.
- Functional esophageal disorders
- Functional colonic disease: In medicine, the term functional colonic disease (or functional bowel disorder) refers to a group of bowel disorders which are characterised by chronic abdominal complaints without a structural or biochemical cause that could explain symptoms.
- Functional constipation
- Functional rectal pain
- Functional dyspepsia
- Noncardiac chest pain
- Chronic functional abdominal pain
- Irritable bowel syndrome
Functional gastrointestinal disorders have been found in 60–70% of both Canadian and American populations. Globally, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia alone affect 16–26% of the population.
Notes and references
- Fass R (January 2009). "Functional heartburn: what it is and how to treat it". Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 19 (1): 23–33, v. doi:10.1016/j.giec.2008.12.002. PMID 19232278.
- Wouters MM, Vicario M, Santos J (2015). "The role of mast cells in functional GI disorders". Gut 65: 155–168. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309151. PMID 26194403.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by chronic complaints arising from disorganized brain-gut interactions leading to dysmotility and hypersensitivity. The two most prevalent FGIDs, affecting up to 16–26% of worldwide population, are functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. ... It is well established that mast cell activation can generate epithelial and neuro-muscular dysfunction and promote visceral hypersensitivity and altered motility patterns in FGIDs, postoperative ileus, food allergy and inflammatory bowel disease.
▸ Mast cells play a central pathophysiological role in IBS and possibly in functional dyspepsia, although not well defined.
▸ Increased mast cell activation is a common finding in the mucosa of patients with functional GI disorders. ...
▸ Treatment with mast cell stabilisers offers a reasonably safe and promising option for the management of those patients with IBS non-responding to conventional approaches, though future studies are warranted to evaluate efficacy and indications.
- "Rome Foundation // Scoring Rome III Questionnaire using SAS".