Jump to content

Functional disorder

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Functional disorders are a group of recognisable medical conditions which are due to changes to the functioning of the systems of the body rather than due to a disease affecting the structure of the body.[1]

Functional disorders are common and complex phenomena that pose challenges to medical systems. Traditionally in western medicine, the body is thought of as consisting of different organ systems, but it is less well understood how the systems interconnect or communicate. Functional disorders can affect the interplay of several organ systems (for example gastrointestinal, respiratory, musculoskeletal or neurological) leading to multiple and variable symptoms. Less commonly there is a single prominent symptom or organ system affected.

Most symptoms that are caused by structural disease can also be caused by a functional disorder. Because of this, individuals often undergo many medical investigations before the diagnosis is clear. Though research is growing to support explanatory models of functional disorders, structural scans such as MRIs, or laboratory investigation such as blood tests do not usually explain the symptoms or the symptom burden. This difficulty in 'seeing' the processes underlying the symptoms of functional disorders has often resulted in these conditions being misunderstood and sometimes stigmatised within medicine and society.

Despite being associated with high disability, functional symptoms are not a threat to life, and are considered modifiable with appropriate treatment.[citation needed]



Functional disorders are mostly understood as conditions characterised by:

  • persistent and troublesome symptoms
  • associated with impairment or disability
  • where the pathophysiological basis is related to problems with the functioning and communication of the body systems (as opposed to disease affecting the structure of organs or tissues)



There are many different functional disorder diagnoses that might be given depending on the symptom or syndrome that is most troublesome. There are many examples of symptoms that individuals may experience; some of these include persistent or recurrent pain, fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath or bowel problems. Single symptoms may be assigned a diagnostic label, such as "functional chest pain", "functional constipation" or "functional seizures". Characteristic collections of symptoms might be described as one of the functional somatic syndromes.[2] A syndrome is a collection of symptoms. Somatic means 'of the body'. Examples of functional somatic syndromes include: irritable bowel syndrome; cyclic vomiting syndrome; some persistent fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia (chronic widespread pain), or chronic pelvic pain; interstitial cystitis; functional neurologic disorder; and multiple chemical sensitivity.[citation needed]



Most medical specialties define their own functional somatic syndrome, and a patient may end up with several of these diagnoses without understanding how they are connected. There is overlap in symptoms between all the functional disorder diagnoses. For example, it is not uncommon to have a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia.[3] All functional disorders share risk factors and factors that contribute to their persistence. Increasingly researchers and clinicians are recognising the relationships between these syndromes.[citation needed]



The terminology for functional disorders has been fraught with confusion and controversy, with many different terms used to describe them. Sometimes functional disorders are equated or mistakenly confused with diagnoses like category of "somatoform disorders", "medically unexplained symptoms", "psychogenic symptoms" or "conversion disorders". Many historical terms are now no longer thought of as accurate, and are considered by many to be stigmatising.[4]

Psychiatric illnesses have historically also been considered as functional disorders in some classification systems, as they often fulfil the criteria above. Whether a given medical condition is termed a functional disorder depends in part on the state of knowledge. Some diseases, such as epilepsy, were historically categorized as functional disorders but are no longer classified that way.[citation needed]



Functional disorders can affect individuals of all ages, ethnic groups and socioeconomic backgrounds. In clinical populations, functional disorders are common and have been found to present in around one-third of consultations in both specialist practice[5] and primary care.[6] Chronic courses of disorders are common and are associated with high disability, health-care usage and social costs.[7]

Rates differ in the clinical population compared with the general population, and will vary depending on the criteria used to make the diagnosis. For example, irritable bowel syndrome is thought to affect 4.1%,[8] and fibromyalgia 0.2–11.4% of the global population.[9]

A recent large study carried out on population samples in Denmark showed the following: In total, 16.3% of adults reported symptoms fulfilling the criteria for at least one Functional Somatic Syndrome, and 16.1% fulfilled criteria for Bodily Distress Syndrome.[10]



The diagnosis of functional disorders is usually made in the healthcare setting most often by a doctor — this could be a primary care physician or family doctor, hospital physician or specialist in the area of psychosomatic medicine or a consultant-liaison psychiatrist. The primary care physician or family doctor will generally play an important role in coordinating treatment with a secondary care clinician if necessary.

The diagnosis is essentially clinical, whereby the clinician undertakes a thorough medical and mental health history and physical examination. Diagnosis should be based on the nature of the presenting symptoms, and is a "rule in" as opposed to "rule out" diagnosis — this means it is based on the presence of positive symptoms and signs that follow a characteristic pattern. There is usually a process of clinical reasoning to reach this point and assessment might require several visits, ideally with the same doctor.

In the clinical setting, there are no laboratory or imaging tests that can consistently be used to diagnose the conditions; however, as is the case with all diagnoses, often additional diagnostic tests (such as blood tests, or diagnostic imaging) will be undertaken to consider the presence of underlying disease. There are however diagnostic criteria that can be used to help a doctor assess whether an individual is likely to suffer from a particular functional syndrome. These are usually based on the presence or absence of characteristic clinical signs and symptoms. Self-report questionnaires may also be useful.

There has been a tradition of a separate diagnostic classification systems for "somatic" and "mental" disorder classifications. Currently, the 11th version of the International Classification System of Diseases (ICD-11) has specific diagnostic criteria for certain disorders which would be considered by many clinicians to be functional somatic disorders, such as IBS or chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia, and dissociative neurological symptom disorder.[11]

In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) the older term somatoform (DSM-IV) has been replaced by somatic symptom disorder, which is a disorder characterised by persistent somatic (physical) symptoms, and associated psychological problems to the degree that it interferes with daily functioning and causes distress. (APA, 2022). Bodily distress disorder is a related term in the ICD-11.

Somatic symptom disorder and bodily distress disorder have significant overlap with functional disorders and are often assigned if someone would benefit from psychological therapies addressing psychological or behavioural factors which contribute to the persistence of symptoms. However, people with symptoms partly explained by structural disease (for example, cancer) may also meet the criteria for diagnosis of functional disorders, somatic symptom disorder and bodily distress disorder.[12]

It is not unusual for a functional disorder to coexist with another diagnosis (for example, functional seizures can coexist with epilepsy,[13] or irritable bowel syndrome with inflammatory bowel disease.[14] This is important to recognise as additional treatment approaches might be indicated in order that the patient achieves adequate relief from their symptoms.

The diagnostic process is considered an important step in order for treatment to move forward successfully. When healthcare professionals are giving a diagnosis and carrying out treatment, it is important to communicate openly and honestly and not to fall into the trap of dualistic concepts – that is "either mental or physical" thinking; or attempt to "reattribute" symptoms to a predominantly psychosocial cause.[15] It often important to recognise the need to cease unnecessary additional diagnostic testing if a clear diagnosis has been established .[16]



Explanatory models that support our understanding of functional disorders take into account the multiple factors involved in symptom development. A personalised, tailored approach is usually needed in order to consider the factors which relate to that individual's biomedical, psychological, social, and material environment.[17]

More recent functional neuroimaging studies have suggested malfunctioning of neural circuits involved in stress processing, emotional regulation, self-agency, interoception, and sensorimotor integration.[18] A recent article in Scientific American proposed that important brain structures suspected in the pathophysiology of functional neurological disorder include increased activity of the amygdala and decreased activity within the right temporoparietal junction.[19]

Healthcare professionals might find it useful to consider three main categories of factors: predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating (maintaining) factors.

Predisposing factors


These are factors that make the person more vulnerable to the onset of a functional disorder; and include biological, psychological and social factors. Like all health conditions, some people are probably predisposed to develop functional disorders due to their genetic make-up. However, no single genes have been identified that are associated with functional disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms (mechanisms that affect interaction of genes with their environment) are likely to be important, and have been studied in relation to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.[20] Other predisposing factors include current or prior somatic/physical illness or injury, and endocrine, immunological or microbial factors.[21]

Functional disorders are diagnosed more frequently in female patients.[22] The reasons for this are complex and multifactorial, likely to include both biological and social factors. Female sex hormones might affect the functioning of the immune system, for example.[23] Medical bias possibly contributes to the sex differences in diagnosis: women are more likely to be diagnosed than men with a functional disorder by doctors.[24]

People with functional disorders also have higher rates of pre-existing mental and physical health conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders,[25] Post-traumatic stress disorder,[26] multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.[27] Personality style has been suggested as a risk factor in the development of functional disorders but the effect of any individual personality trait is variable and weak.[28][29] Alexithymia (difficulties recognising and naming emotions) has been widely studied in patients with functional disorders and is sometimes addressed as part of treatment.[30] Migration, cultural and family understanding of illness, are also factors that influence the chance of an individual developing a functional disorder.[31] Being exposed to illness in the family while growing up or having parents who are healthcare professionals are sometimes considered risk factors. Adverse childhood experiences and traumatic experiences of all kinds are known important risk factors.[32][33][26] Newer hypotheses have suggested minority stressors may play a role in the development of functional disorders in marginalized communities.[34][35]

Precipitating factors


These are the factors that for some patients appear to trigger the onset of a functional disorder. Typically, these involve either an acute cause of physical or emotional stress, for example an operation, a viral illness, a car accident, a sudden bereavement, or a period of intense and prolonged overload of chronic stressors (for example relationship difficulties, job or financial stress, or caring responsibilities). Not all affected individuals will be able to identify obvious precipitating factors and some functional disorders develop gradually over time.

Perpetuating factors


These are the factors that contribute to the development of functional disorder as a persistent condition and maintaining symptoms. These can include the condition of the physiological systems including the immune and neuroimmune systems, the endocrine system, the musculoskeletal system, the sleep-wake cycle, the brain and nervous system, the person's thoughts and experience, their experience of the body, social situation and environment. All these layers interact with each other. Illness mechanisms are important therapeutically as they are seen as potential targets of treatment.[36]

The exact illness mechanisms that are responsible for maintaining an individual's functional disorder should be considered on an individual basis. However, various models have been suggested to account for how symptoms develop and continue. For some people there seems to be a process of central-sensitisation,[37] chronic low grade inflammation[38] or altered stress reactivity mediated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Fischer et al., 2022). For some people attentional mechanisms are likely to be important.[39] Commonly, illness-perceptions or behaviours and expectations (Henningsen, Van den Bergh et al. 2018 ) contribute to maintaining an impaired physiological condition.

Perpetuating illness mechanisms are often conceptualized as "vicious cycles", which highlights the non-linear patterns of causality characteristic of these disorders.[40] Other people adopt a pattern of trying to achieve a lot on "good days" which results in exhaustion for days following and a flare up of symptoms, which has led to various energy management tools being used the patient community, such as "spooning".[41]

Depression, PTSD, sleep disorders, and anxiety disorders can also perpetuate functional disorders and should be identified and treated where they are present. Side effects or withdrawal effects of medication often need to be considered. Iatrogenic factors such as lack of a clear diagnosis, not feeling believed or not taken seriously by a healthcare professional, multiple (invasive) diagnostic procedures, ineffective treatments and not getting an explanation for symptoms can increase worry and unhelpful illness behaviours. Stigmatising medical attitudes and unnecessary medical interventions (tests, surgeries or drugs) can also cause harm and worsen symptoms.[42]



Functional disorders can be treated successfully and are considered reversible conditions. Treatment strategies should integrate biological, psychological and social perspectives. The body of research around evidence-based treatment in functional disorders is growing.[43]

With regard to self-management, there are many basic things that can be done to optimise recovery. Learning about and understanding the condition is helpful in itself.[44] Many people are able to use bodily complaints as a signal to slow down and reassess their balance between exertion and recovery. Bodily complaints can be used as a signal to begin incorporating stress reduction and balanced lifestyle measures (routine, regular activity and relaxation, diet, social engagement) that can help reduce symptoms and are central to improving quality of life. Mindfulness practice can be helpful for some people.[45] Family members or friends can also be helpful in supporting recovery.

Most affected people benefit from support and encouragement in this process, ideally through a multi-disciplinary team with expertise in treating functional disorders. Family members or friends may also be helpful in supporting recovery. The aim of treatment overall is to first create the conditions necessary for recovery, and then plan a programme of rehabilitation to re-train mind-body connections making use of the body's ability to change. Particular strategies can be taught to manage bowel symptoms, pain or seizures.[43] Though medication alone should not be considered curative in functional disorders, medication to reduce symptoms might be indicated in some instances, for example where mood or pain is a significant issue, preventing adequate engagement in rehabilitation. It is important to address accompanying factors such as sleep disorders, pain, depression and anxiety, and concentration difficulties.

Physiotherapy may be relevant for exercise and activation programs, or when weakness or pain is a problem.[46] Psychotherapy might be helpful to explore a pattern of thoughts, actions and behaviours that could be driving a negative cycle – for example tackling illness expectations or preoccupations about symptoms.[47] Some existing evidence-based treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for functional neurological disorder;[48] physiotherapy for functional motor symptoms,[49] and dietary modification or gut targeting agents for irritable bowel syndrome.[50]

Controversies and stigma


Despite some progress in the last decade, people with functional disorders continue to suffer subtle and overt forms of discrimination by clinicians, researchers and the public. Stigma is a common experience for individuals who present with functional symptoms and is often driven by historical narratives and factual inaccuracies. Given that functional disorders do not usually have specific biomarkers or findings on structural imaging that are typically undertaken in routine clinical practice, this leads to potential for symptoms to be misunderstood, invalidated, or dismissed, leading to adverse experiences when individuals are seeking help.[51]

Part of this stigma is also driven by theories around "mind body dualism", which frequently surfaces as an area of importance for patients, researchers and clinicians in the realm of functional disorders. Artificial separation of the mind/brain/body (for example the use of phrases such as; "physical versus psychological" or "organic versus non-organic") furthers misunderstanding and misconceptions around these disorders, and only serves to hinder progress in scientific domain and for patients seeking treatment. Some patient groups have fought to have their illnesses not classified as functional disorders, because in some insurance based health-care systems these have attracted lower insurance payments.[52] Current research is moving away from dualistic theories, and recognising the importance of the whole person, both mind and body, in diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

People with functional disorders frequently describe experiences of doubt, blame, and of being seen as less 'genuine' than those with other disorders. Some clinicians perceive those individuals with functional disorders are imagining their symptoms, are malingering, or doubt the level of voluntary control they have over their symptoms. As a result, individuals with these disorders often wait long periods of time to be seen by specialists and receive appropriate treatment.[53] Currently, there is a lack of specialised treatment services for functional disorders in many countries.[54] However, research is growing in this area, and it is hoped that the implementation of the increased scientific understanding of functional disorders and their treatment will allow effective clinical services supporting individuals with functional disorders to develop.[55] Patient membership organisations/advocate groups have been instrumental in gaining recognition for individuals with these disorders.[56][57]



Directions for research involve understanding more about the processes underlying functional disorders, identifying what leads to symptom persistence and improving integrated care/treatment pathways for patients.

Research into the biological mechanisms which underpin functional disorders is ongoing. Understanding how stress effects the body over a lifetime,[58] for example via the immune[59][60] endocrine[20] and autonomic nervous systems, is important Ying-Chih et.al 2020, Tak et. al. 2011, Nater et al. 2011). Subtle dysfunctions of these systems, for example through low grade chronic inflammation,[61][62] or dysfunctional breathing patterns,[63] are increasingly thought to underlie functional disorders and their treatment. However, more research is needed before these theoretical mechanisms can be used clinically to guide treatment for an individual patient.

See also



  1. ^ Burton C, Fink P, Henningsen P, Löwe B, Rief W (March 2020). "Functional somatic disorders: discussion paper for a new common classification for research and clinical use". BMC Medicine. 18 (1): 34. doi:10.1186/s12916-020-1505-4. PMC 7052963. PMID 32122350.
  2. ^ Barsky AJ, Borus JF (June 1999). "Functional somatic syndromes". Annals of Internal Medicine. 130 (11): 910–921. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-11-199906010-00016. PMID 10375340. S2CID 668300.
  3. ^ Wessely S, Nimnuan C, Sharpe M (September 1999). "Functional somatic syndromes: one or many?". Lancet. 354 (9182): 936–939. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08320-2. PMID 10489969. S2CID 11203982.
  4. ^ Barron E, Rotge JY (October 2019). "Talking about "psychogenic nonepileptic seizure" is wrong and stigmatizing". Seizure. 71: 6–7. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2019.05.021. PMID 31154287. S2CID 163168382.
  5. ^ Nimnuan C, Hotopf M, Wessely S (July 2001). "Medically unexplained symptoms: an epidemiological study in seven specialities". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 51 (1): 361–367. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00223-9. PMID 11448704.
  6. ^ Haller H, Cramer H, Lauche R, Dobos G (April 2015). "Somatoform disorders and medically unexplained symptoms in primary care". Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 112 (16): 279–287. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2015.0279. PMC 4442550. PMID 25939319.
  7. ^ Konnopka A, Schaefert R, Heinrich S, Kaufmann C, Luppa M, Herzog W, König HH (2012). "Economics of medically unexplained symptoms: a systematic review of the literature" (PDF). Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 81 (5): 265–275. doi:10.1159/000337349. PMID 22832397. S2CID 8043003.
  8. ^ Sperber AD, Bangdiwala SI, Drossman DA, Ghoshal UC, Simren M, Tack J, et al. (January 2021). "Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study". Gastroenterology. 160 (1): 99–114.e3. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.014. PMID 32294476. S2CID 215793263.
  9. ^ Marques AP, Santo AS, Berssaneti AA, Matsutani LA, Yuan SL (2017-07-01). "Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update". Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia. 57 (4): 356–363. doi:10.1016/j.rbre.2017.01.005. PMID 28743363.
  10. ^ Petersen MW, Schröder A, Jørgensen T, Ørnbøl E, Dantoft TM, Eliasen M, et al. (July 2020). "Prevalence of functional somatic syndromes and bodily distress syndrome in the Danish population: the DanFunD study". Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 48 (5): 567–576. doi:10.1177/1403494819868592. PMID 31409218. S2CID 199572511.
  11. ^ "ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  12. ^ Löwe B, Levenson J, Depping M, Hüsing P, Kohlmann S, Lehmann M, et al. (November 2021). "Somatic symptom disorder: a scoping review on the empirical evidence of a new diagnosis". Psychological Medicine. 52 (4): 632–648. doi:10.1017/S0033291721004177. PMC 8961337. PMID 34776017.
  13. ^ LaFrance WC, Reuber M, Goldstein LH (March 2013). "Management of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures". Epilepsia. 54 (Suppl 1): 53–67. doi:10.1111/epi.12106. PMID 23458467. S2CID 205115146.
  14. ^ Fairbrass KM, Costantino SJ, Gracie DJ, Ford AC (December 2020). "Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome-type symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). The Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 5 (12): 1053–1062. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30300-9. PMID 33010814. S2CID 222154523.
  15. ^ Gask L, Dowrick C, Salmon P, Peters S, Morriss R (November 2011). "Reattribution reconsidered: narrative review and reflections on an educational intervention for medically unexplained symptoms in primary care settings". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 71 (5): 325–334. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.05.008. PMID 21999976.
  16. ^ Pall M (2013-04-25). Explaining Unexplained Illnesses. CRC Press. doi:10.4324/9780367806767. ISBN 978-0-367-80676-7.
  17. ^ Cathébras P (2021-04-27). "Patient-Centered Medicine: A Necessary Condition for the Management of Functional Somatic Syndromes and Bodily Distress". Frontiers in Medicine. 8: 585495. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.585495. PMC 8110699. PMID 33987188.
  18. ^ Aybek, Selma; Perez, David L. (2022-01-24). "Diagnosis and management of functional neurological disorder". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 376: o64. doi:10.1136/bmj.o64. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 35074803. S2CID 246210869.
  19. ^ L'Erario, Z. Paige. "New Research Points to Causes for Brain Disorders with No Obvious Injury". Scientific American. Retrieved 2023-05-20.
  20. ^ a b Tak LM, Cleare AJ, Ormel J, Manoharan A, Kok IC, Wessely S, Rosmalen JG (May 2011). "Meta-analysis and meta-regression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in functional somatic disorders". Biological Psychology. 87 (2): 183–194. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.002. PMID 21315796. S2CID 206108463.
  21. ^ Löwe B, Andresen V, Van den Bergh O, Huber TB, von dem Knesebeck O, Lohse AW, et al. (January 2022). "Persistent SOMAtic symptoms ACROSS diseases - from risk factors to modification: scientific framework and overarching protocol of the interdisciplinary SOMACROSS research unit (RU 5211)". BMJ Open. 12 (1): e057596. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057596. PMC 8785206. PMID 35063961.
  22. ^ Kingma EM, de Jonge P, Ormel J, Rosmalen JG (June 2013). "Predictors of a functional somatic syndrome diagnosis in patients with persistent functional somatic symptoms". International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 20 (2): 206–212. doi:10.1007/s12529-012-9251-4. PMID 22836483. S2CID 30177131.
  23. ^ Thomas N, Gurvich C, Huang K, Gooley PR, Armstrong CW (July 2022). "The underlying sex differences in neuroendocrine adaptations relevant to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 66: 100995. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2022.100995. PMID 35421511. S2CID 248089549.
  24. ^ Claréus B, Renström EA (August 2019). "Physicians' gender bias in the diagnostic assessment of medically unexplained symptoms and its effect on patient-physician relations". Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 60 (4): 338–347. doi:10.1111/sjop.12545. PMC 6851885. PMID 31124165.
  25. ^ Garakani A, Win T, Virk S, Gupta S, Kaplan D, Masand PS (January 2003). "Comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome in psychiatric patients: a review". American Journal of Therapeutics. 10 (1): 61–67. doi:10.1097/00045391-200301000-00014. PMID 12522523.
  26. ^ a b Cohen H, Neumann L, Haiman Y, Matar MA, Press J, Buskila D (August 2002). "Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in fibromyalgia patients: overlapping syndromes or post-traumatic fibromyalgia syndrome?". Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 32 (1): 38–50. doi:10.1053/sarh.2002.33719. PMID 12219319.
  27. ^ Stone J, Carson A, Duncan R, Roberts R, Coleman R, Warlow C, et al. (January 2012). "Which neurological diseases are most likely to be associated with "symptoms unexplained by organic disease"". Journal of Neurology. 259 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1007/s00415-011-6111-0. PMID 21674198. S2CID 20306076.
  28. ^ Macina C, Bendel R, Walter M, Wrege JS (December 2021). "Somatization and Somatic Symptom Disorder and its overlap with dimensionally measured personality pathology: A systematic review". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 151: 110646. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110646. PMID 34715494. S2CID 239529626.
  29. ^ Kato K, Sullivan PF, Evengård B, Pedersen NL (November 2006). "Premorbid predictors of chronic fatigue". Archives of General Psychiatry. 63 (11): 1267–1272. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.11.1267. PMID 17088507.
  30. ^ Porcelli P, Bagby RM, Taylor GJ, De Carne M, Leandro G, Todarello O (September 2003). "Alexithymia as predictor of treatment outcome in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders". Psychosomatic Medicine. 65 (5): 911–918. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000089064.13681.3b. PMID 14508040. S2CID 24284532.
  31. ^ Isaac M, Janca A, Burke KC, Costa e Silva JA, Acuda SW, Altamura AC, et al. (1995). "Medically unexplained somatic symptoms in different cultures. A preliminary report from phase I of the World Health Organization International Study of Somatoform Disorders". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 64 (2): 88–93. doi:10.1159/000288996. PMID 8559958.
  32. ^ Bradford K, Shih W, Videlock EJ, Presson AP, Naliboff BD, Mayer EA, Chang L (April 2012). "Association between early adverse life events and irritable bowel syndrome". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 10 (4): 385–390.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.12.018. PMC 3311761. PMID 22178460.
  33. ^ Ludwig L, Pasman JA, Nicholson T, Aybek S, David AS, Tuck S, et al. (April 2018). "Stressful life events and maltreatment in conversion (functional neurological) disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 5 (4): 307–320. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30051-8. hdl:20.500.11820/48a37695-e67f-4614-a2ee-01a284e51988. PMID 29526521.
  34. ^ Lerario, Mackenzie P.; Rosendale, Nicole; Waugh, Jeff L.; Turban, Jack; Maschi, Tina (2023-04-21). "Functional Neurological Disorder Among Sexual and Gender Minority People". Neurologic Clinics. 41 (4): 759–781. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2023.02.010. ISSN 0733-8619. PMID 37775203. S2CID 258291244.
  35. ^ Lerario, Mackenzie; Fusunyan, Mark; Stave, Christopher; Waugh, Jeffrey; Wilkinson-Smith, Alison; Roldan, Valeria; Keuroghlian, Alex; Turban, Jack; Perez, David; Maschi, Tina; Rosendale, Nicole (2023-04-25). "A Scoping Review of Functional Neurological Disorder in Sexual and Gender Minority People". Neurology. 100 (17 Supplement 2). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2534. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000202627. S2CID 258410917. P1-12.004.
  36. ^ Kozlowska K (September 2013). "Functional somatic symptoms in childhood and adolescence". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 26 (5): 485–492. doi:10.1097/yco.0b013e3283642ca0. PMID 23867659. S2CID 43084699.
  37. ^ Bourke JH, Langford RM, White PD (March 2015). "The common link between functional somatic syndromes may be central sensitisation". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 78 (3): 228–236. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.01.003. PMID 25598410.
  38. ^ Lacourt TE, Vichaya EG, Chiu GS, Dantzer R, Heijnen CJ (2018-04-26). "The High Costs of Low-Grade Inflammation: Persistent Fatigue as a Consequence of Reduced Cellular-Energy Availability and Non-adaptive Energy Expenditure". Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 12: 78. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00078. PMC 5932180. PMID 29755330.
  39. ^ Barsky AJ, Goodson JD, Lane RS, Cleary PD (September 1988). "The amplification of somatic symptoms". Psychosomatic Medicine. 50 (5): 510–519. doi:10.1097/00006842-198809000-00007. PMID 3186894. S2CID 29282201.
  40. ^ Brazier DK, Venning HE (May 1997). "Conversion disorders in adolescents: a practical approach to rehabilitation". British Journal of Rheumatology. 36 (5): 594–598. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/36.5.594. PMID 9189063.
  41. ^ "What Is the Spoon Theory Metaphor for Chronic Illness?". Cleveland Clinic. 2021-11-16. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  42. ^ Ashe LM (June 2021). "From iatrogenic harm to iatrogenic violence: corruption and the end of medicine". Anthropology & Medicine. 28 (2): 255–275. doi:10.1080/13648470.2021.1932415. PMID 34355977. S2CID 236934489.
  43. ^ a b Henningsen P, Zipfel S, Sattel H, Creed F. Management of Functional Somatic Syndromes and Bodily Distress. OCLC 1187867360.
  44. ^ van Gils A, Schoevers RA, Bonvanie IJ, Gelauff JM, Roest AM, Rosmalen JG (July 2016). "Self-Help for Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" (PDF). Psychosomatic Medicine. 78 (6): 728–739. doi:10.1097/psy.0000000000000325. PMID 27187850. S2CID 23734980.
  45. ^ Lakhan SE, Schofield KL (2013-08-26). "Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of somatization disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e71834. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...871834L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071834. PMC 3753315. PMID 23990997.
  46. ^ Nielsen G, Stone J, Matthews A, Brown M, Sparkes C, Farmer R, et al. (October 2015). "Physiotherapy for functional motor disorders: a consensus recommendation". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 86 (10): 1113–1119. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2014-309255. PMC 4602268. PMID 25433033.
  47. ^ Hennemann S, Böhme K, Kleinstäuber M, Baumeister H, Küchler AM, Ebert DD (2022). "Supplemental Material for Internet-Based CBT for Somatic Symptom Distress (iSOMA) in Emerging Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1037/ccp0000707.supp. ISSN 0022-006X. S2CID 246769680.
  48. ^ Goldstein LH, Robinson EJ, Chalder T, Reuber M, Medford N, Stone J, et al. (March 2022). "Six-month outcomes of the CODES randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for dissociative seizures: A secondary analysis". Seizure. 96: 128–136. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2022.01.016. PMC 8970049. PMID 35228117.
  49. ^ Vassilopoulos, Areti; Mohammad, Shekeeb; Dure, Leon; Kozlowska, Kasia; Fobian, Aaron D. (2022). "Treatment Approaches for Functional Neurological Disorders in Children". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 24 (2): 77–97. doi:10.1007/s11940-022-00708-5. ISSN 1092-8480. PMC 8958484. PMID 35370394.
  50. ^ "Irritable Bowel Syndrome". Pediatric Practice Guidelines. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. October 2020. doi:10.1891/9780826185235.0008o. ISBN 978-0-8261-6869-6. S2CID 70708220.
  51. ^ Looper KJ, Kirmayer LJ (October 2004). "Perceived stigma in functional somatic syndromes and comparable medical conditions". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 57 (4): 373–378. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(04)00447-7. PMID 15518673.
  52. ^ Dumit J (February 2006). "Illnesses you have to fight to get: facts as forces in uncertain, emergent illnesses". Social Science & Medicine. 62 (3): 577–590. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.018. PMID 16085344.
  53. ^ Herzog A, Shedden-Mora MC, Jordan P, Löwe B (April 2018). "Duration of untreated illness in patients with somatoform disorders". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 107: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.01.011. PMID 29502757.
  54. ^ Kohlmann S, Löwe B, Shedden-Mora MC (2018-12-07). "Health Care for Persistent Somatic Symptoms Across Europe: A Qualitative Evaluation of the EURONET-SOMA Expert Discussion". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 9: 646. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00646. PMC 6292948. PMID 30581394.
  55. ^ Mars RA, Yang Y, Ward T, Houtti M, Priya S, Lekatz HR, et al. (November 2020). "Longitudinal Multi-omics Reveals Subset-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Irritable Bowel Syndrome". Cell. 183 (4): 1137–1140. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.040. PMID 33186523. S2CID 226308619.
  56. ^ "HOME FND Hope". FND Hope International. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  57. ^ "The IBS Network". www.theibsnetwork.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  58. ^ M Nater U, Fischer S, Ehlert U (2011-05-01). "Stress as a Pathophysiological Factor in Functional Somatic Syndromes". Current Psychiatry Reviews. 7 (2): 152–169. doi:10.2174/157340011796391184.
  59. ^ Dantzer R, Heijnen CJ, Kavelaars A, Laye S, Capuron L (January 2014). "The neuroimmune basis of fatigue". Trends in Neurosciences. 37 (1): 39–46. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.003. PMC 3889707. PMID 24239063.
  60. ^ Boeckxstaens GE, Wouters MM (June 2017). "Neuroimmune factors in functional gastrointestinal disorders: A focus on irritable bowel syndrome". Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 29 (6): e13007. doi:10.1111/nmo.13007. PMID 28027594. S2CID 44642749.
  61. ^ Irwin MR (September 2011). "Inflammation at the intersection of behavior and somatic symptoms". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 34 (3): 605–620. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2011.05.005. PMC 3820277. PMID 21889682.
  62. ^ Strawbridge R, Sartor ML, Scott F, Cleare AJ (December 2019). "Inflammatory proteins are altered in chronic fatigue syndrome-A systematic review and meta-analysis". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 107: 69–83. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.08.011. PMID 31465778. S2CID 201645160.
  63. ^ Gold AR (December 2011). "Functional somatic syndromes, anxiety disorders and the upper airway: a matter of paradigms". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 15 (6): 389–401. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2010.11.004. PMID 21295503.