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"Mushroom coral" redirects here. For soft mushroom corals, see Corallimorpharia.
Fungia scutaria 1.jpg
Close-up of Fungia scutaria
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Scleractinia
Suborder: Fungiina
Family: Fungiidae

See text.

The Fungiidae /fəŋˈɡ.ɨd/ are a family of Cnidaria, often known as mushroom corals. The family contains thirteen extant genera. They range from solitary corals to colonial species. Some genera such as Cycloseris and Fungia are solitary organisms, Polyphyllia consists of a single organism with multiple mouths, and Ctenactis and Herpolitha might be considered as solitary organisms with multiple mouths or a colony of individuals, each with its separate mouth.[1]


Species are generally solitary marine animals capable of benthic locomotion.[2][3] These corals often appear to be bleached or dead.[4] In most genera, a single polyp emerges from the center of the skeleton to feed at night. Most species remain fully detached from the substrate in adulthood. Some are immobile as well as colonial.[5][6]


Some species of mushroom coral such as Fungia repanda and Ctenactis echinata are able to change sex. This is posited to take place in response to environmental or energetic constraints, and to improve the organism's evolutionary fitness; similar phenomena are observed in some dioecious plants.[7]


Notable species[edit]

Importance to humans[edit]

Members of the family Fungiidae are not of any commercial importance, but are collected for the aquarium trade and are sold as "plate corals".


  1. ^ Veron, J.E. (2013). "Colony formation". Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Retrieved 2015-04-22. 
  2. ^ Halstead, Bob. 2000. Coral Sea Reef Guide. Sea Challengers, Danville, CA, USA.
  3. ^ "The Best Livestock For Your Reef Aquarium: Plate Corals, Family Fungiidae, Pt. 1". Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  4. ^ "Stony Corals From The Family Fungiidae, A.J. Nilsen, October 1997, Aquarium.Net". (Where Reefkeeping Begins on the Internet). Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  5. ^ a b "BioLib - Heliofungia actiniformis (Long tentacle plate coral)". Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  6. ^ "Fungioidea". 2002-10-28. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  7. ^ Yossi Loya and Kazuhiko Sakai, "Bidirectional sex change in mushroom stony corals", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 22 October 2008
  8. ^ "Siokunichthys nigrolineatus". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  9. ^ Bos, Arthur R (2012). "Fishes (Gobiidae and Labridae) associated with the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) in the Philippines". Coral Reefs 31: 133. doi:10.1007/s00338-011-0834-3. 
  10. ^ Bos AR, Hoeksema BW (2015). "Cryptobenthic fishes and co-inhabiting shrimps associated with the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Fungiidae) in the Davao Gulf, Philippines". Environmental Biology of Fishes 98 (6): 1479–1489. doi:10.1007/s10641-014-0374-0. 
  11. ^ "Predatory coral eats jellyfish". BBC News. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 


See also[edit]

External links[edit]