Logo used since 2016
|FUNimation Productions (1994–2005)
FUNimation Entertainment (2005–2011)
|Founded||May 9, 1994|
|Headquarters||Flower Mound, Texas, U.S.|
|Gen Fukunaga (President and CEO)|
|Products||Anime, motion pictures, Japanese/Asian cinema|
|Owner||Sony Pictures Entertainment
|Parent||Sony Pictures Television
Funimation is an American entertainment, anime, and foreign licensing company based in Flower Mound, Texas. The studio is one of the leading distributors of anime and other foreign entertainment properties in North America alongside Viz Media, Sentai Filmworks and Aniplex of America. Their most popular property is Toei Animation's action-adventure series Dragon Ball Z, which had a successful run on Cartoon Network's Toonami block from 1998 to 2003, and has been re-released on DVD and Blu-ray several times since.
The company was founded on May 9, 1994 by Gen Fukunaga and his wife Cindy as FUNimation Productions, with funding by Daniel Cocanougher and his family, who became investors in the company. Funimation was sold to Navarre Corporation on May 11, 2005 and the company was renamed FUNimation Entertainment.
In April 2011, Navarre sold Funimation to a group of investors including Fukunaga for $24 million. Around the same time, the company's trademark ball, star and blue bar were dropped from its logo and the company was renamed to simply Funimation. In May 2013, Funimation consolidated its divisions under its new holding company Group 1200 Media. Funimation is a portmanteau of the English words "fun" and "animation". On July 31, 2017, Sony Pictures Television announced plans to acquire a 95% stake in Funimation for $143 million while Gen Fukunaga will retain his position with a 5% share.
- 1 History
- 2 Legal actions
- 3 Foreign distribution
- 4 Funimation Channel
- 5 Alternative distribution
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The company was founded on May 9, 1994 by Japanese-born businessman Gen Fukunaga. Fukunaga's uncle, Nagafumi Hori, was working as a producer for Toei Company; Hori approached Gen about licensing Dragon Ball to the United States. He proposed that if Fukunaga could start a production company and raise enough money, Toei Animation would license the rights to the franchise (which also currently included the English subtitled version of Digimon Adventure, Digimon Adventure 02, and Digimon Tamers). Fukunaga met with co-worker Daniel Cocanougher whose family owned a feed mill in Decatur, Texas and convinced Cocanougher's family to sell their business and serve as an investor for his company. The company was originally formed in Silicon Valley, California as Funimation Productions in 1994, but eventually relocated to Flower Mound, Texas, located near Fort Worth. They initially collaborated with other companies on Dragon Ball, such as BLT Productions, Ocean Studios, Pioneer and Saban Entertainment. By 1998, after two failed attempts to bring the Dragon Ball franchise to a U.S. audience, it finally found success on Cartoon Network's action-oriented programming block Toonami, and the Dragon Ball phenomenon quickly grew in the United States as it had elsewhere. This led Funimation to begin licensing other anime to the U.S.
On May 11, 2005, Funimation was acquired by the now-defunct Navarre Corporation for US$100.4 million in cash and 1.8 million shares of Navarre stock. As part of the acquisition, the president Fukunaga was retained as head of the company, transitioning to the position of CEO, and the company's name was changed from Funimation Productions to Funimation Entertainment.
In 2007, Funimation moved from North Richland Hills, Texas to Flower Mound; the standalone Flower Mound facility has double the square footage of the space Funimation occupied previous North Richland Hills facility; in the North Richland Hills facility Funimation shared the building with other tenants. Funimation moved into the Lakeside Business District with a ten-year lease.
Acquisition of Geneon and ADV licenses and online streaming
According to an interview in February 2008 with Navarre Corporation CEO Cary Deacon, Funimation was in early stage negotiations to acquire some of the titles licensed through Geneon's USA division, which ceased operations in December 2007. In July 2008, Funimation confirmed that they had acquired distribution rights to several Geneon titles, including some that Geneon had left unfinished when they ceased operations.
In the first quarter of 2010, Navarre Corporation reclassified Funimation as "discounted operations" and began preparations to sell the company. Navarre released a statement in April 2011 confirming that Funimation has been sold to a group of investors, including original owner Gen Fukunaga, for $24 million. It is speculated that Funimation was sold at such a low cost (in comparison to how much it was originally purchased for, almost $100 million in cash and $15 million in stock in 2005) because Navarre wanted to continue distributing goods in relation to the products, but not handle the publishing. Navarre remained as exclusive distributor of Funimation's titles until 2013 when the company shutdown.
On October 14, 2011, Funimation announced a permanent partnership with Niconico, the English-language version of Nico Nico Douga, to form the 'Funico' brand for the licensing of anime for streaming and home video release. From this point on, virtually all titles simulcasted by Niconico were acquired by Funimation. The deal has since been severed.
On June 22, 2015, Funimation and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment announced a multi-year home video distribution deal. The deal will allow UPHE to manage distribution and sales of Funimation's catalog of titles. Universal began distributing Funimation's titles in October of that year.
FunimationNow and Partnership with Crunchyroll
In January 2016, Funimation announced a new streaming service, FunimationNow, along with a new logo. The service also is available in the UK and Ireland, the first time the company has expanded beyond North America.
On September 8, 2016, Funimation announced a partnership with Crunchyroll. Select Funimation titles will be streamed subtitled on Crunchyroll and select Crunchyroll titles will be streamed on FunimationNow, including upcoming dubbed content. In addition, Funimation and Universal will act as distributors for Crunchyroll's home video catalog.
On May 18, 2017, Shout! Factory acquired the North American distribution rights to In This Corner of the World, with a U.S. theatrical release to take place in August 11, 2017, co-released by Funimation Films.
Acquisition by Sony
In May 2017, it was reported that Universal Studios and Sony Pictures were interested in purchasing Funimation; however, Universal decided not to proceed with the bidding. On July 31, 2017, Sony Pictures Television announced that it would buy a controlling 95% stake in Funimation for $143 million in cash pending approval from the United States Department of Justice. This deal would allow Funimation to have synergies with Sony's Animax and Kids Station divisions and "direct access to the creative pipeline". The Department of Justice approved the acquisition on August 22, 2017.
In 2005, Funimation's legal department began to pursue a more aggressive approach toward protecting the company's licensed properties. Then started sending "cease and desist" (C&D) letters to sites offering links to fansubs of their titles. This move was similar to that taken by the now-defunct ADV Films several years before with several of the major torrent sites.
Funimation's legal department served C&D letters for series that had not yet been advertised or announced as licensed, including Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle, Black Cat, and SoltyRei, with a few known series also mentioned in the letter. Funimation revealed more licenses on October 6, 2006 when it sent letters to torrent sites demanding that distribution of xxxHolic's TV series, Mushishi, Ragnarok the Animation, and other series cease.
In January 2011, Funimation filed a lawsuit against BitTorrent users in the U.S. for allegedly downloading and uploading One Piece. Funimation dropped the suit in March after a Northern Texas judge, having already indicated that the court would appoint attorneys for the defendants, ruled that the defendants were not "acting in concert" and thus couldn't be sued as a group; each would have to be sued separately.
The One Piece film at issue was a fansub, an unauthorized copy distributed with fan-produced, translated subtitles. Soon after the lawsuit was abandoned, Funimation was reported to have long been deriving dubs from fansubs. Funimation nevertheless maintains that fansubbing is harmful to the anime industry, stating "The practices of illegal downloads and 'fansubbing' are very harmful to our Japanese partners and [...] we have been asked to monitor and take action against unauthorized distribution of these titles. Because we believe that this will benefit the industry, we have agreed to do so." Sites which distribute fansubs or separate fan-created subtitles remain a frequent target of civil actions by Funimation and other anime companies, as well as criminal prosecution in at least one case.
Two months after the failure to sue BitTorrent users en masse in the North Texas district, Funimation engaged in forum shopping and proceeded to sue 1,427 defendants in the neighboring East Texas district for acting "in concert" to infringe copyright on The Legend Is Born: Ip Man. This case was allowed to proceed.
Disputes with partners
In November 2011, Funimation sued A.D. Vision, AEsir Holdings, Section23 Films, Valkyrie Media Partners, Seraphim Studios, Sentai Filmworks and its CEO, John Ledford and Switchblade Pictures for a sum of $8 million, citing "breach of contracts" and other issues. Funimation said that ADV's transfer of assets were made with "the intent to defer, hinder or defraud the creditors of ADV [Films]." Funimation sought ADV's sale of assets as void. The lawsuit was settled in mediation in 2014. The terms of the settlement were not disclosed.
Funimation does not directly release its properties in non-North American (English language-speaking) markets, instead sublicensing to other companies such as Manga Entertainment until it was transferred in 2015 to Anime Limited in the United Kingdom and Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia Region (PNG, Solomon Islands, Fiji). Funimation's former UK outlets include Revelation Films and MVM Films. Funimation has also attempted to distribute Dragon Ball Z to Spanish speaking audiences, and has released a number of Spanish-language DVDs of the series.
Funimation Entertainment, along with Olympusat, launched the Funimation Channel in September 2005, the second 24-hour anime digital cable network in North America (the first being A.D. Vision's Anime Network). Olympusat was the exclusive distributor of the channel.
When the channel first launched, it was available to a few cities via UHF digital signals. The service was temporary as the channel was trying to gain a foothold in the already crowded digital cable landscape. Another short-term service was the syndication of a Funimation Channel block to one of OlympuSAT's affiliate networks – Colours TV. Both services were discontinued in favor for a more successful expansion on digital cable, fiber optics and DBS systems. The channel launched its HD feed on September 27, 2010. On December 31, 2015, Funimation & Olympusat ended their deal and no longer broadcasts Funimation titles on the channel. The channel relaunched as Toku, while Funimation announced plans to relaunch Funimation Channel in 2016.
Back in 2007, Funimation Entertainment licensed Revolutionary Girl Utena: The Movie, the Record of Lodoss War series, Roujin Z, the Project A-ko series, Urusei Yatsura: Beautiful Dreamer and Grave of the Fireflies from Central Park Media and played them on the Funimation Channel on television in the United States. In 2009, they licensed Buso Renkin, Honey and Clover, Hunter × Hunter, Nana and Monster from Viz Media (their fellow rival) for the channel. They also licensed Ninja Nonsense and Boogiepop Phantom from Right Stuf Inc.'s Nozomi Entertainment division for it as well. The only title licensed for Funimation Channel which was not licensed by Funimation, neither Viz Media, nor Nozomi Entertainment or Central Park Media was Haré+Guu, which was licensed for North American distribution by AN Entertainment and Bang Zoom! Entertainment and had its North American DVD release published by Funimation, while its licensors were the producers. The only Enoki USA titles Funimation licensed for Funimation Channel were Revolutionary Girl Utena and His and Her Circumstances.
In July 2008, Funimation and Red Planet Media announced the launch of a mobile video-on-demand service for AT&T Mobility and Sprint mobile phone subscribers. Three titles were part of the launch, Gunslinger Girl, Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase, and The Galaxy Railways, with entire seasons of each made available.
On September 19, 2006, Funimation created an official channel on YouTube where they upload advertisements for box sets, as well as clips and preview episodes of their licensed series. In September 2008, they began distributing full episodes of series on Hulu. In December of the same year, Funimation added a video section to their main website with preview episodes of various series. In April 2009, they began distributing full episodes of series at Veoh. Full episodes are also available on the YouTube channel as well as on Netflix, the PlayStation Network (PSN) Video Store and Xbox Live/Zune Marketplace. The application launched for PlayStation 4 in March 2015.
For the anime Space Dandy, Funimation dubbed episodes and broadcast them on Adult Swim's Toonami block a day earlier than the "original" Japanese broadcast. After the method gained success, Funimation announced in October 2014 a "broadcast dubs" program, which would be exclusive to subscribers on their website. For the anime series, getting "broadcast dubs" confirms that the anime series will get USA home video releases from Funimation. These dubs are based on the broadcast versions of select licensed shows currently airing, which may include censorship depending on how it was originally aired, and differs from the final dubbed version included on home video releases on a case-by-case basis. The program first began with broadcast dub versions of Psycho-Pass 2 and Laughing Under the Clouds, episodes of which were streamed roughly a month following their original Japanese broadcast.
- As of October 2012, the Chilling Effects search engine is broken, but Google search results for site:chillingeffects.org funimation reveal the DMCA notices received and processed so far.
- "20 Years of the Best in Anime". Archived from the original on May 19, 2014.
- Films, Funimation. "About Us - Funimation Films". Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "Navarre Corporation Announces Sale Of FUNimation Entertainment". GLOBE NEWSWIRE. April 4, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- "Navarre Sells Anime Studio FUNimation". Asia Pacific Arts. April 8, 2011.
- "Sony Pictures TV to Acquire Majority Stake in Funimation". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- "SONY PICTURES TELEVISION NETWORKS TO ACQUIRE SUBSTANTIAL MAJORITY STAKE IN FUNIMATION". Sony Pictures. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- "Interview with Gen Fukunaga, Part 1". ICv2. November 1, 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- "Animerica October 1995 - Sailor Moon Dragon Ball TV Edit News & scans". Practicemakesawesome.com. May 13, 2012. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- "Navarre Corporation Acquires Funimation, and Provides Financial Update and Guidance" (Press release). Navarre Corporation. May 11, 2005. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2006.
- "Navarre Completes Funimation Acquisition" (Press release). ICv2. May 12, 2005. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Wethe, David (June 7, 2007). "Funimation moving headquarters to Flower Mound". Fort-Worth Star Telegram. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
- "FUNimation Entertainment scripts HQ move" (PDF). Dallas Business Journal. June 8, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
- "Navarre/FUNimation Interested in Some Geneon Titles". ICv2. February 8, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- "FUNimation Entertainment and Geneon Entertainment Sign Exclusive Distribution Agreement for North America" (Press release). funimation.com. July 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 7, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
- "Funimation Picks Up Over 30 Former AD Vision Titles" (Press release). animenewsnetwork.com. July 4, 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2008.
- "Funimation Adds Toei's Air Master, Captain Harlock - News". Anime News Network. April 3, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- "Funimation, Niconico to Jointly License Anime". Anime News Network. October 14, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- "Funimation and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment Enter Into Multi-Year Distribution Agreement". PR Newswire. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "FUNimation Reveals (First?) October 2015 Anime Releases". July 17, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "Crunchyroll, Funimation Announce Partnership to Share Content Via Streaming, Home Video, Est.". Anime News Network. September 8, 2016.
- McNary, Dave. "Japanese Animated Film ‘In This Corner of the World’ Scheduled for August Release". Variety. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Sakoui, Anousha (May 4, 2017). "Universal and Sony Are Eyeing ‘Dragon Ball' Importer Funimation". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Petski, Denise (July 31, 2017). "Sony Pictures TV Networks To Acquire Majority Stake in Funimation". Deadline. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- "Funimation Enforces Intellectual Property Rights (ANN)". Retrieved October 14, 2006.
- "Funimation Sends out Cease & Desist Letters For Multiple Anime (ANN)". Retrieved October 14, 2006.
- Manry, Gia (May 9, 2011). "Interview: Evan Stone". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- McSherry, Corynne (February 15, 2011). "Don't Mess With Texas: Another Texas Judge Scrutinizes Mass Copyright Litigation". EFF. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Funimation Dismisses Its One Piece BitTorrent Lawsuit". Anime News Network. March 24, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Downloaded Sora no Otoshimono Copy Shown at Funimation Studio". Anime News Network. March 22, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "3 Titles' Fansubs Pulled on Behalf of Japan's d-rights". Anime News Network. August 18, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
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- "Funimation Sues A.D. Vision, Sentai, Others for US$8 Million". News. Anime News Network. January 13, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "Funimation v. ADV Lawsuit Settled, Dismissed". News. Anime News Network. May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- service on UHF signals
- syndicated block
- "FUNimation Reveals Plans for New Cable Channel" (Press Release). PR Newswire. December 14, 2015.
- "Funimation Entertainment has licensed several titles from the Central Park Media library for playing on the Funimation Channel on TV in the USA only.". Anime News Network.
- Central Park Media filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy in 2009, and Grave of the Fireflies had its North American rights acquired by ADV Films, who made the film their own title and then made it have its own North American VOD debut on Anime Network but later shut down as well, the same year after that. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2009-04-28/central-park-media-files-for-chapter-7-bankruptcy (Central Park Media Files for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy) & http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2009-05-05/adv-adds-grave-of-the-fireflies-now-and-then-here-and-there (ADV Films Adds Grave of the Fireflies, Now and Then, Here and There
- Although Anime Network has never aired Grave of the Fireflies on TV in the United States and Canada, when the film was licensed by ADV Films then Sentai Filmworks, since the discontinuation of the 24/7 linear service that occurred 7 years ago, on January 1, 2008, it streamed the film on VOD in the 2 countries.
- "Funimation Entertainment has licensed 5 titles from the Viz Media library for playing on the Funimation Channel in the USA only.". Anime News Network.
- "Monster aired on Syfy's Ani-Mondays block, then on Chiller. (May be earlier or later)". Monster Anime Premieres on Syfy's Ani-Monday Tonight (Updated). Anime News Network.
- Later, Viz Media streamed Nana, Buso Renkin and Honey and Clover on their Neon Alley service, but Hunter × Hunter (the 1999 anime, not the 2011 reboot), and Monster were never streamed on that service.
- "FUNimation to Play 2 Enoki Films USA Titles On FUNimation Channel". icv2.com. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Full Seasons of the Best Anime from FUNimation Channel Launch on JumpInMobile.TV – The New Mobile Video-on-Demand Service from Red Planet Media". Anime News Network. July 9, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- "Hulu.com Launches Channel for Free, Legal Anime Streams (Update 2)". Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Rojas (April 1, 2009). "Legal Anime Watching on Veoh.com". The Funimation Update. Funimation Entertainment. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Funimation Adds More Anime to Veoh Video Website". ANN News. Anime News Network. April 2, 2009. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Funimation Publishes on XBOX". ANN News 2. Anime News Network. February 6, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Funimation App Launches on PlayStation 3, animenewsnetwork.com, December 26, 2014.
- "ANNCast - A Funi Feeling". Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "Funimation Dubs Psycho-Pass 2, Laughing Under the Clouds Anime as They Air in Japan". Retrieved December 30, 2016.
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