The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within England and Wales with consequential effects on associated matters in Scotland which had previously been governed by the same legislation as England and Wales. The most visible result was to allow thirty-five polytechnics to become universities (often referred to as the "new universities" or "post-1992 universities"). In addition the Act created bodies to fund higher education in England—HEFCE—and further education—FEFC. Universities in Scotland and Wales which had previously been funded by one UK-wide Universities Funding Council were the subject of other Acts that created higher education funding councils in each country. The act abolished binary line, created national unitary funding councils, removed colleges of further education from local government control, and created quality assessment arrangements.