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Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Phylum: incertae sedis
Class: incertae sedis
Order: incertae sedis
Family: Fuselloviridae

Fuselloviridae is a family of viruses. Sulfolobus species, specifically shibatae, solfataricus, and islandicus, serve as natural hosts. There are currently nine species in this family, divided among 2 genera.[1][2] The Fuselloviridae are ubiquitous in high-temperature (≥70 °C), acidic (pH ≤4) hot springs around the world.


Group: dsDNA



Viruses in Fuselloviridae are enveloped, with lemon-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 60 nm, with a length of 100 nm. Genomes are circular, around 17.3kb in length.[1] Biochemical characterization of SSV1, a prototypical fusellovirus, showed that virions are composed of four virus-encoded structural proteins, VP1 to VP4, as well as one DNA-binding chromatin protein of cellular origin. The virion proteins VP1, VP3, and VP4 undergo posttranslational modification by glycosylation, seemingly at multiple sites. VP1 is also proteolytically processed. SSV1 virions contain glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, which appear to be acquired by the virus in a selective manner from the host cytoplasmic membrane.[3]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Alphafusellovirus Lemon-shaped Enveloped Circular Monopartite
Betafusellovirus Lemon-shaped Enveloped Circular Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Sulfolobus shibatae, Sulfolobus solfataricus, and Sulfolobus islandicus serve as the natural host.[1] Fuselloviruses are released from the host without causing cell lysis by a budding mechanism, similar to that employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses.[4]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Alphafusellovirus Archea: thermolophilic None Injection Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion
Betafusellovirus Archea: thermolophilic None Injection Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion


  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  3. ^ Quemin ER, Pietilä MK, Oksanen HM, Forterre P, Rijpstra WI, Schouten S, Bamford DH, Prangishvili D, Krupovic M (2015). "Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 contains glycosylated capsid proteins, a cellular chromatin protein, and host-derived lipids". J Virol. 89 (22): 11681–11691. doi:10.1128/JVI.02270-15. PMC 4645638. PMID 26355093.
  4. ^ Quemin ER, Chlanda P, Sachse M, Forterre P, Prangishvili D, Krupovic M (2016). "Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea". mBio. 7 (5): e01439-16. doi:10.1128/mBio.01439-16. PMC 5021807. PMID 27624130.

External links[edit]